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Two three-month-old puppies from the same litter were submitted to necropsy after a clinical history of purulent ocular discharge, diarrhoea and coughing. Grossly, the lungs were filled with fluid, firm and diffusely mottled with red and yellow areas. A clumped white-yellowish material with longitudinal stripes was loosely adhered to the esophagus. The histological analysis of the lungs revealed a suppurative and histiocytic broncho-interstitial pneumonia with fibrin, hemorrhage and myriads of eosinophilic intracytoplasmatic and basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. The diagnosis was consistent with co-infection by canine adenovirus type-2 and canine distemper virus. Both dogs also had severe proliferative Candida sp. esophagitis. Reports of two concomitant viral diseases and mycotic infection are relatively rare and suggest intrinsic and environmental immunosuppressive factors.
Keywords: canine distemper, canine adenovirus type 2, Candida sp., diseases of dogs, immunohistochemistry
Download full article: V.1,-N.2,-11-20881_2009_12_30_32_6
A schwannoma with bone differentiation was diagnosed in a seven-year-old German Shepherd female dog. Clinical signs were those of limping and proprioceptive and neurological deficits. Superficial and deep sensitivity were lower and muscle atrophy of the left forelimb was marked. Two subscapular masses were detected at examination. Microscopic analysis of the masses disclosed a pronounced proliferation of either palisadingloosely arranged within a myxoid tissue spindle neoplastic cells intermingled with bone tissue islands. The neoplasm was positive for vimentin, S100 protein and GFAP.
Keywords: Neoplasm, schwannoma, bone differentiation, immunohistochemistry.
Download full article: V.1,-N.2,-12-20881_2009_12_30_32_58
A case report of perforated duodenal ulcer in a 4.5 year-old Holstein cow is presented. The cow was treated with an overdose of diclofenac sodium. Necropsy findings included diffuse fibrinous peritonitis and microscopically there was severe necrosis and acute inflammation of the duodenum at the margin of the ulcer. Although gastrointestinal ulcers are often associated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in others species, it is rarely described in cattle.
Keywords: duodenal ulcer, diclofenac, bovine, NSAID.
Download full article: V.1,-N.2,-13-20881_2009_12_30_33_22
Canine cyclical flank alopecia is an uncommon dysplastic cutaneous disease described predominantly in the Northern Hemisphere. This condition is associated with recurrent hair-loss and subsequent hair regrowth at the lateral flank folds and other regions of the body. Diagnosis is based on characteristic histological findings with the exclusion of hormonal-related cutaneous diseases. This report describes a similar condition that occurred in a dog from Southern Brazil during three consecutive years. However, alopecia initiated during winter to spring with subsequent hair regrowth in summer. Histopathology of cutaneous biopsy revealed atrophy of hair follicles without an associated inflammatory reactionthe participation of infectious agents. The clinical manifestations associated with histopathological findings of this dog are suggestive of cyclical flank alopecia, but with an inverted occurrence of alopecia.
Keywords: cyclical flank alopecia; skin; dog; histopathology.
Download full article: V.1,-N.2,-14-20881_2009_12_30_34_4
Spina bifida is a congenital bone malformation with incomplete closure of the dorsal vertebral arches that may occur in association with protrusion of the meningesspinal cord and meninges due to the vertebral defect. The aim of the present paper is to describe the occurrence of spina bifida in two mongrel and an English Cocker Spaniel dogs. In first and third cases spina bifida were diagnosticated by clinical examination and myelography. First and second dogs were macerated and examined macroscopically. In the first case, we observed that besides spina bifida in the lumbosacral vertebrae and meningomyelocele, there were other congenital alterations such as thoracic block vertebrae and incomplete closure of some vertebral bodies. The second dog also presented open spina bifida in the sacrocaudal region, and a closed spina bifida in both the caudal cervical and initial thoracic vertebrae. In the third case, spina bifida in the lumbosacral region was associated with meningomyelocele.
Keywords: Spina bifida, congenital malformation, diseases of dogs
Download full article: V.1,-N.2,-15-20881_2009_12_30_35_2
An eight years-old male ferret presented a ventral abdominal nodular mass near the inguinal region. On clinical examination, a warty nodular mass in the abdomen was detected and the ferret was submitted to excisional biopsy by surgical procedure. At histopathology, adenomatous structures with preponderance of basophilic reserve cells, some sebocytes and showing squamous differentiation were observed. The diagnosis of sebaceous epithelioma was established based on clinical presentation and histopathologic findings. The animal recovered and at the moment no complication was reported.
Keywords: Sebaceous Epithelioma, Ferret, neoplasia, pathology, diseases of Ferrets, Mustela putorius furo
Download full article: V.1,-N.2,-16-20881_2009_12_30_37_40
A thoracic neoplastic mass in a 6 years-old German Shepherd dog was examined. The dog had apathy, regurgitation, and ascites. A large mass occupying the cranioventral, medial and caudal mediastinum was found by X ray and ultrasonography. Grossly, a 27 x 23 x 12 cm encapsulated, multilobulated, and cystic mass was found. Firms adhesions were present between the neoplasm and the right and left cranial lung lobes. Histopathologically, the neoplastic cell population consisted of solids sheets of epithelial cells and aggregatesindividual lymphocytes. By immunohistochemistry, proliferating epithelial cells were positive for keratin and lymphocytes were intensely positive for CD3, identifying them as T cells. Based on gross, histologic, and immunohistochemical findings, the neoplasm was
diagnosed as a mixed thymoma.
Keywords: Canine, thoracic neoplasia, thymoma, lymphocytes T, immunohistochemistry.
Download full article: V.1,-N.2,-17-20881_2009_12_30_38_38
Sepsis is still a leading cause of death worldwide and the mechanism of shock remains to be completely understood. Several studies have aimed to evaluate the effects of several drugs and procedures in sepsis, and the most common models of this study are to challenge mice with LPSto simulate a polymicrobial infection using a surgical procedure. Such procedure consists in exposure of the cecum by a midline laparotomy, ligature of ileocecal junction and perforation with a needle, squeezing cecum contents to the peritoneum cavity. Beyond the variations allowed by this model, the thickness of the needle used and the number of perforations seem to be an important factor, displaying different levels of sepsis severity. In this study, we used two mice strains (C57BL/6 and BALB/c) to describe the procedures of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), comparing the survival rates of mice subjected to three different thicknesses of perforation.
Keywords: sepsis, shock, polymicrobial infection, CLP, C57BL/6, BALB/c
Download full article: V.1,-N.2,-18-20881_2009_12_30_38_44
The number of dermal mast cells in several European and Zebu cattle breeds was determined and correlated with the tick load. Breeds included European registered and non-registered Holstein, Brown-Swiss and Jersey cows, Zebu (Nelore and Gyr) and crossbred cows with either highlow tick infestations. Animals were naturally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and evaluated at regular time intervals for tick attachment and feeding. Ear biopsies were taken and processed according to routine histology for mast cell countings carried out on both the upper and deep dermis. The average cell counts were then correlated with the number of engorged ticks attached to host. Nelore cows presented the largest mast cells countings/mm2 (139.42; P <0.05), while surprisingly Gyr showed similar number of cells (61.73) as the non-registered Holstein (48.76) and Brown-Swiss (67.31) ones. Jersey cows presented the smallest cell countings (29.32) despite their greater resistance to tick infestation as compared to Holstein and Brown-Swiss. There was a negative correlation (r= -0.21, P <0.01) between the number of cells in the upper dermis and tick counts when all data (n= 155) were analyzed in a single correlation plane, irrespective of the breed. These results confirm the important role played by mast cells in bovine resistance to the cattle tick R. microplus.
Keywords: Mast cells, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, zebuine, taurine, crossbred
Download full article: V.1,-N.2,-19-20881_2009_12_30_38_45
Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are two retroviruses that are deadly to the domestic cat (Felis catus) and important to the conservation of the threatened wild felids worldwide. Differences in the frequencies of occurrence and the existence of varying related viruses among felid species have incited the search for understanding the relationships among hosts and viruses into individual and population levels. Felids infected can die of related diseasescope with the infection but not show pathognomonicovert clinical signs. As the home range for eight species of neotropic felids and the home to hundreds of felids in captivity, Brazil has the challenge of improving its diagnostic capacity for feline retroviruses and initiating long term studies as part of a monitoring program.
Keywords: Feline retrovirus, FeLV, lentivirus, FIV, wild felids, conservation, wildlife diseases
Download full article: V.1,-N.2,-20-20881_2009_12_30_39_19
Download full article: V.1,-N.2,-21-20881_2009_12_30_39_23