v.3, n.2, 16
Canine distemper virus (CDV) may induce multifocal demyelination in the central nervous system of infected dogs. The present work investigated apoptosis in white and gray matter (granular layer) in the cerebellum of naturally infected dogs by the analysis of the expression of the pro-apoptotic antigens caspase – 2 and – 3 , b(terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL-staining) positivity, annexin-V immunodetection, and the presence of the anti-apoptotic antigens, BCl-2 and p53. Cerebellum specimens were obtained from the Laboratory of Animal Pathology, from 1995 to 2009, and the 5-µm thick fragments were stained both with hematoxylin-eosin and Shorr. All samples were diagnosed as positive for CDV genome by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction targeting the nucleocapsid gene. The anti-apoptotic pathways evidenced in this study were BCl-2 and p53 proteins that were intensively detected in cerebellum of CDV positive slides (40-80% of labeled cells/mm2). In addition, the apoptosis markers annexin-V and TUNEL are directly correlated among the same samples (80 and 40% of labeled cells, respectively). This is the first description of p53 and annexin-V expression, characterized as anti-apoptotic and apoptotic proteins, involvement in canine natural cases of CDV infections.
Key words: CDV, programmed cell death, host-virus interaction.
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v.3, n.2, 17
The lymphoma is the main hematopoietic tumor in dogs and it is characterized by the proliferation of cells from lymphoid tissue, histiocytes and its precursors. Animals with lymphoma often show changes in biochemical and hematological parameters such as non-regenerative normochromic normocytic anemia, hemolytic anemia, hypocalcaemia and monoclonal gammopathy. The development of tumor can cause alterations in serum concentrations of acute phase proteins (APPs), consequent of hepatocytes stimulus by cytokines of inflammatory action. This study aimed to quantify and qualify APPs in dogs with lymphoma, at diagnosis time and during the time of chemotherapy sessions. After syneresis, centrifugation and fractioning the serum samples of 10 healthy and 10 dogs with lymphomas, the proteins fractions were separated by polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and its concentrations were determined by computer densitometry. Between 18 and 30 proteins were separated by eletrophoresis, with molecular weights ranging from 18 to 245 kDa (kilodaltons). The alpha-1-glicoprotein acid (AGP) and transferrin serum concentration showed significantly higher in dogs with lymphoma, when compared with healthy dogs at diagnosis. The alpha-1-antitripsin (AAT) serum concentrations showed significantly higher in healthy dogs, when compared with dogs with lymphoma at diagnosis. The dogs with lymphoma the albumin did not appear as negative APP. On the other hand, transferrin appeared as positive AAP at diagnosis time and during the chemotherapy sessions. Healthy dogs had AAT serum concentrations significantly higher when compared to dogs with lymphoma at diagnosis. So, in this trial, it is suggested that this protein has been shown as a negative APP in the dogs with lymphoma. These dogs presented significantly higher AGP serum concentrations, in relation to healthy dogs at diagnosis, evidencing this protein APP positive behavior in neoplasm.
Key words: dog, cancer, protein, electrophoresis, chemotherapy
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v.3, n.2, 18
Thirty fine-needle biopsy (FNB) samples from 28 dogs subjected to surgical resection of cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) were stained with Giemsa. At least 100 neoplastic cells from each cytology slide were evaluated by morphometric analysis. The parameters were: area, perimeter of the cell, cytoplasm, nucleus and circumference factor. MCTs of grade III had a mean cellular area of 231.70 µm2 ± 57.1, and grade II had a mean of 252.30 µm2 ± 55.0. Cellular perimeter was 61.20 ± 7.1 in grade II and 59.1 ± 8.6 in grade III. Cellular parameters were not statistically different between grades (p> .05). Mean nuclear area was 88.90 µm2 ± 19 in grade III and 72.30 µm2 ± 13.9 in grade II, with statistical difference between grades (P = .011). Mean nuclear perimeter was 32.40 µm ± 3.0 in grade II and 35.70 µm ± 4.0 in grade III, with statistical difference between grades (P = .018). Mean nuclear circumference factor was 1.0 ± 0.33 in grade II and 1.1 ± 0.28 in grade III, with no statistical difference between grades (P = 0.78). Nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio in grade II was 0.29 ± .07 and 0.39 ± .08 in grade III, with statistical difference (P = .02). The number of binucleated and multinucleated cells and mitotic figures was significantly increased in grade III MCTs (P < .001). In conclusion, the number of mitotic figures, presence of binucleation and multinucleation, and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio can help to guide a profile of MCT aggressiveness in cytologic preparations.
Key Words: cytopathology, morphometry, image analysis, mast cell tumor
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v.3, n.2, 19
Melanoma is one of the most lethal skin neoplasms among dogs and cats, and its incidence is increasing worldwide in the last years. The relation between the study of tumor biology and epidemiologic data from melanocytic tumors (melanomas and melanocytomas) can help in the achievement of an earlier and safer clinical diagnosis. However, epidemiologic data for these neoplasms are still rare in Brazil. Thus, we performed a retrospective study of melanocytic neoplasms in dogs and cats registered at the Animal Pathology Service of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science (SVMAS), University of São Paulo (USP), between January of 2000 and December of 2006. The epidemiological data extracted from pathology records regarded affected population (age, gender, hair color) and tumor characteristics (anatomic location and histological type). Of 2154 histopathological reports analyzed 193 (8.9%) were melanocytic neoplasms, of which 186 cases in dogs (96.4%) and only 7 in cats (3.6%). Male dogs, of mixed breed, among 8 and 11 years of age and black hair were most affected by melanocytic neoplasms. Histological types most often found were epithelioid cell melanoma mainly located in the buccal cavity, and melanocytomas, located on the skin. Among cats, females between 8 and 11 years of age of mixed breed and black hair were most often affected. Epithelioid melanoma again presented as the most common histological type, located, however, on the skin. In conclusion, this casuistic demonstrated that melanocytic neoplasms develop mostly in middle age dogs with dark hair, in the oral cavityskin, with histological type of epithelioid cells. Melanocytic tumors are rare in cats when compared to dogs; in our cases, they were diagnosed in middle aged female cats, mostly located in skin, and with epithelioid histological type. Epidemiological data strengthen the importance of early diagnosis of melanocytic tumors in Veterinary Medicine, promoting initiation of the most appropriate therapeutical process, improving diagnosis and promoting animal welfare.
Key Words: Epidemiology, dog, cat, melanocytic neoplasm, tumor biology
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v.3, n.2, 20
A preliminary prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine trial was successfully conducted in bull calves with binary ethylenimine (BEI) inactivated saponized crude cutaneous warts bovine papillomavirus 1 and 2 (CW BPV-1 & -2) vaccine. In Prophylactic Group of vaccinated animals no temperature, untoward reactionnodule formation was seen at vaccine inoculation site. After challenge with BPV inoculum, cutaneous warts (CWs) failed to develop in this group indicating that vaccine was effective. In Therapeutic Group, before vaccination in two animals CWs were experimentally induced. In one animal, luxuriant cauliflower-like and in other linear slow growth was observed. After vaccination, CWs in both animals became dried and growth was arrested. It appeared that tumours were regressing which was confirmed by further clinical observations as very little tumour-scar was left at termination of experiment. Histopathologically, both cases were diagnosed as regressing occult/ early fibroblastic type papilloma. Mononuclear cellular infiltration/ aggregates around hair follicles and in tumour stroma were noted. As compared to first case (cauliflower- like/ fast growing) in second case (linear growth/ fast regressing), in addition to other findings mononuclear cellular inflammatory reaction were more pronounced. The clinical regression results are in accordance with histopathological findings of degree of infiltration of lymphocytes and this trial showed that both type use of BEI inactivated saponized crude CW BPV-1&-2 vaccine gave encouraging results with fast regression/ prevention of CWs.
Key Words: BEI, BPV vaccine, cutaneous warts, calves, histopathological assessment.
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v.3, n.2, 21
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the blood serum components and histopathological findings of commercial layers experimentally infected with Salmonella Gallinarum (SG), the microorganism responsible for the fowl typhoid. 180 commercial layers were distributed into three groups (G): G1 and G2 received 0.2mL of inoculum containing 3.3×108 and 3.3×105 CFU of resistant SG to the nalidix acid (Nalr)/mL, respectively, directly into their crops; G3 did not receive the inoculum (control group). The birds were inoculated when they were 5 days old and the euthanasia was performed 24 hours before and after infection and 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after the administration of the inoculum. In each day of collection, blood samples were obtained for biochemical tests of the blood serum besides macroscopic and histopathological examination of the birds. Data were submitted to analysis of variance by the SAS statistical program and the means were compared by Tukey´s test (P<0,05). In the serum biochemical profile it was observed that the infection interfered in the values of total protein, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, cholesterol, triglycerides, GGT and ALT in the infected groups. The macroscopic examination showed hepatomegaly, alteration of the hepatic color and hemorrhagic spots in the kidneys of animals from G1. The histopathology showed degeneration of hepatocytes in G1 and G2 although other lesions like multifocal hepatic necrosis and inflammatory infiltrate on the liver and kidneys were restricted to G1. The alterations were more evident on G1 which received a higher concentration of bacteria/mL when compared to G2. The results showed that the correlation between biochemical alterations and macroscopic and histopathological lesions can assist the comprehension of the pathophysiology of fowl typhoid, supplying important information for the diagnosis and prognosis of this disease.
Key Words: fowl typhoid, serum biochemical profile, histopathology, commercial layers
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v.3, n.2, 22
A 7-year-old, intact female Bulldog was presented to the veterinarian with ocular signs characteristic of Horner’s Syndrome: bilateral conjunctival hyperemia, enophthalmos, miosis, and protrusion of the third eyelid of left eye. A month later, the dog returned for recheck with marked neurologic signs: lethargy, circling, constant vocalizing, depressed mentation, and hyperesthesia. A neoplasm in the brain was suspected. Treatment was implemented in an attempt to reduce clinical signs. After initial clinical remission, the clinical condition got worse and the owner elected euthanasia. Necropsy revealed a large intracranial neoplasm affecting an extensive portion of the cerebral parenchyma. The neoplasm was histologically diagnosed as glioblastoma multiforme. Determination of the extent of the affected cerebral regions based on neurologic exam was useful in establishing the presumptive clinical diagnosis of intracranial neoplasm. Horner’s syndrome preceded the neurologic signs in this dog. Although intracranial neoplasms such as glioblastomas multiformes are a rare cause of this syndrome, it is important to include them in the list of differential diagnoses in dogs in which this syndrome is seen in conjunction with neurologic signs.
Key words: canine, Horner’s syndrome, intracranial neoplasia, pathology, glioblastoma multiforme
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v.3, n.2, 23
A spontaneous adenocarcinoma occurred in one (0.22%) adult male Syrian hamster out of 443 necropsied from a breeding animal house of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Gross inspection showed that the renal neoplasm consisted of a unilateral single white nodule of hard consistency located in the cortex, measuring 5 mm in diameter. Microscopically, the renal epithelial cells were markedly pleomorphic and presented an abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasm. Cells were cuboidal and mainly formed trabeculae of various widths without a lumen and also formed solid areas. There were necrotic areas and three mitotic figures per 30 high-power fields. No intravascular invasionmetastasis was observed. Positive expression of vimentin and negative expression of cytokeratin 7, pan-cytokeratin and CD10 were observed in the tumor. The histopathology and immunohistochemical profile of the renal tumor suggested the diagnosis of the eosinophilic variant of adenocarcinoma, which was reported for the first time in this species.
Key words: Mesocricetus auratus, renal adenocarcinoma, immunohistochemistry, neoplasia
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v.3, n.2, 24
A case of nasal cryptococcosis is reported in a two years old male hair sheep in the Brazilian semi-arid. Severe respiratory signs and a mass occupied a large portion of the right nasal cavity were observed. Cryptococcosis was diagnosed by the typical histologic appearance of the fungus.
Key words: Crypococcus, nasal cavity, Brazilian Semi-Arid
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v.3, n.2, 25
Protoplasmic astrocytomas are uncommon in humans and animals. A 14-year-old, intact female German Shepherd dog presented with a history of ataxia of the pelvic limbs, left-side head torsion and hypermetric response of the right side for approximately 15 days. Neurological examination revealed the presence of cerebellar syndrome and paradoxical vestibular syndrome. Medical therapy was initiated, but neurological signs were progressive, and the owner opted for euthanasia. Gross examination showed no cerebellar lesion. Microscopic features were characterized by prominent background microcystic degeneration and the presence of spindle cells with scant cytoplasm and delicate glial fibers. The immunohistochemical assay showed positive staining for GFAP (glial fibrillar acidic protein), vimentin and S100, and negative staining for factor VIII. A definitive diagnosis of protoplasmic astrocytoma was made on the basis of the histological and immunohistochemical findings.
Key Words: dog, neoplasia, cerebellum, central nervous system.
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v.3, n.2, 26
Salivary gland tumors are uncommon in domestic animals, whereas salivary carcinosarcomas are very rare in the dog. A 15-year-old mongrel bitch was diagnosed with carcinosarcoma of the submandibular salivary gland extending into the adjacent muscular tissues and the jugular vein. The tumor displayed two distinct areas, one portion with sarcomatous neoplastic cells with bone and cartilage differentiation, and other areas with a pleomorphic carcinomatous tissue. The epithelial and mesenchymal nature of neoplastic cells were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Surgery and chemotherapy treatments are discussed.
Key Words: Carcinosarcoma, salivary gland, dog, immunohistochemistry.
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v.3, n.2, 27
Malignant transformation of cells into cancer arises due to long term accumulation of genetic and epigenetic events. Early diagnosis of these transformations in cells can improve the prognosis of cancer cases. Cancer screening and surveillance methods include ultrasound, mammography, digital mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Other techniques such as immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization (FISH, CSH), PCR, RT-PCR (real time- PCR), flow cytometry and microarray are used nowadays for diagnosis. Microarray technology is a new and efficient approach to extract data of biomedical relevance for a wide range of applications. In cancer research, it will provide high-throughput and valuable insights into differences in an individual’s tumor as compared with constitutional DNA, mRNA expression, and protein expression and activity. This review highlights the recent developments in cancer diagnostic technologies and describes the eventual use of these technologies for clinical and research applications.
Key words: Cancer, diagnosis, imaging, IHC, PCR, microarray, tumour marker
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