v.4, n.1, 01
Sida carpinifolia is a plant native to Brazil and when it is ingested by animals for a prolonged period it causes &945;-mannosidosis. The technique of lectin-histochemistry was applied to samples of the central nervous system (CNS) of eleven cattle naturally and experimentally intoxicated by S. carpinifolia in Brazil. The results revealed that the animals showed labeling, mainly in cerebellum sections, with the lectins Concanavalia ensiformis and Triticum vulgaris and in a lesser degree with Succinyl Triticum vulgaris. Labeling was verified within the vacuolized cytoplasm of the cerebellar Purkinje neurons, cells of the molecular layer, cells of the granular layer and astrocytes of the white matter. There was no labeling observed for the lectins Glycine max, Dolichos biflorus, Ulex europaeus-I, Arachis hypogaea and Ricinus communis-I. Intoxication by S. carpinifolia in bovine species is characterized by lectin-histochemistry as &945;-mannosidosis, this being an important tool aiding to the diagnosis of lysosomal storage disease.
Key Words: Storage disease, Sida carpinifolia, cattle, lectin-histochemistry, Brazil
Download full article – 01: V.4,-N.1,-01-20881_2011_3_16_57_58
v.4, n.1, 02
Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium, which is transmitted by Anopheline mosquitoes. Experimental murine models using rodent malaria are useful for studying pathologic aspects of severe malaria. We evaluated histopathologic lesions of TLR-2-/-, TLR-4-/-, TLR-6-/-, TLR-9-/-, CD14-/- and MyD88-/- mice experimentally infected with Plasmodium chabaudi. Frequencies and severity of microscopic lesions in the spleen and liver at one and four weeks post infection (wpi) were determined. At one wpi, adherence of macrophages to the endothelial surface was the most evident change, whereas at four wpi there was marked accumulation of cytoplasmic pigment in macrophages in the liver and spleen. Lesions were not markedly influenced by the absence of TLRs, MyD88CD14. Our findings suggest that acute and chronic phases of murine infection with P. chabaudi are characterized by distinct lesions. In addition, TLRs and MyD88 are not essential to promote these lesions during P. chabaudi infection.
Key Words: rodent malaria, Plasmodium chabaudi, TLRs, MyD88, CD14, histopathology.
Download full article – 02: V.4,-N.1,-02-20881_2011_3_16_58_58
v.4, n.1, 03
The present study aimed at evaluating diagnostic accuracy and efficacy of cytology for rapid diagnosis and differentiation of various mammary affections of canines and the comparison of cytological findings with that of histopathology. Cytological evaluation was conducted on 33 dog patients having mammary gland lesions. Out of these, 28 cases were diagnosed for various mammary affections and rest five cases were inconclusive on the basis of cytological evaluation. Among various affections, 23 were diagnosed as tumors, four as mastitis and one as a case of steatitis. Comparison of cytological findings with histological diagnoses yielded 70% concordance between the two. For malignant mammary tumours, the correlation was 92.30% while for benign mammary tumours, it was quite low (66.66%). Among malignant tumours (n=13), there was one false positive case (7.69%) and one false negative case (7.69%). One case of mixed mammary tumour was misdiagnosed as simple adenocarcinoma. In benign tumours, only one false negative (3.3%) result was found and there was no false positive result. Various cytological techniques like touch impression, fine needle biopsy and teat fluid cytology were employed and these techniques yielded sensitivity and specificity of cytological diagnoses as 87.5% and 85.7%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive value of cytology for diagnosing mammary tumours was 93.3% and75%, respectively. Overall, cytology was found most accurate in diagnosis of neoplastic lesions followed by inflammatory lesions and hyperplastic lesions.
Key Words: Dog, cytology, histopathology, mammary tumours, fine needle aspiration cytology.
Download full article – 03: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-03-20881_2011_4_5_46_9
v.4, n.1, 04
This study presents the histopathologic features of pneumonia in stranded marine mammals on the coast of Lima, Peru during the period of May 2003 to December 2008. Lung samples of 24 South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens), four bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), one dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus), one Burmeister´s porpoise (Phocoena spinipinnis) and one marine otter (Lontra felina) were fixed in 10% formalin and then processed and stained with haematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Shiff (PAS) and trichromic of Masson. From the 31 samples collected only 29 were suitable for microscopic evaluation. The results show a rate of 29/29 pneumonias (100%), five of which were associated to parasites (17%), six of bacteria (21%), four of mixed (parasites and bacteria) (14%) and 14 were of nonspecific cause (48%). The present research indicates that those marine mammals from Lima, Peru are exposed to lungworms, flukes and bacteria that alonemixed may cause pneumonias, which could be contributedto be the primary cause of the stranding in these animals.
Key Words: Histopathology, pneumonias, Otaria flavescens, Tursiops truncatus, Lagenorhynchus obscurus, Phocoena spinipinnis, Lontra felina, Lima, Peru
Download full article – 04: V.4,-N.1,-04-20881_2011_3_16_1_9
v.4, n.1, 05
Infection of young poults with turkey coronavirus (TCoV) produces a syndrome characterized by acute enteritis, diarrhea, anorexia, ruffled feathers, decreased body weight gain and uneven flock growth. The objective of this study was to standardize an intestinal organ culture (IOC) in order to assess host-virus interaction related to apoptosis. For this purpose the Brazilian strain (TCoV/Brazil/2006 with GenBank accession number
FJ188401), was used for infection. Infected IOC cells had mitochondrial dysfunction and initial nuclear activation with MTT value of 90.7 (± 2.4) and apoptotic factor 2.21 (± 2.1), considered statistically different from uninfected IOC cells (p > 0.05). The kinetics of TCoV antigens and viral RNA was directly correlated to annexin-V, caspases- 2 and -3, p53, BCl-2 antigens at 24, 72 and 96 h post-infection (p.i.). Morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis, such as in situ nuclear fragmentation (TUNEL and annexin-V) and DNA ladder formation were also detected in infected cells at all assayed p.i. intervals. Moreover, different from other coronaviruses, the expression of both effective caspase-2 and -3 and p53 antigens were considered lower. However, at all p.i., the BCl-2 antigens were expressed quantitatively and qualitatively as viral antigen measured by immunofluorescence microscopy analysis. Because the diagnosis of TCoV infection is only performed by infecting embryonated poult eggs, the pathological characteristics related to host-virus interaction remain unclear. This is the first report on apoptosis of TCoV infected IOC, and reveals that it may be useful immunological method to assess virus pathogenesis.
Key Words: Apoptosis, Turkey coronavirus (TCoV); intestinal organ culture.
Download full article – 05: V.4,-N.1,-05-20881_2011_3_16_2_24
v.4, n.1, 06
Canine malignant mammary gland tumours were surgically resected from 78 dogs to determine the prognostic value of Ki 67 Proliferation antigen. After post surgical follow up for minimum of 1 year, 48 dogs were still alive, while 21 dogs had died as a consequence of malignancy, while remaining nine dogs showed recurrence of tumour. Formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded histological sections were immunostained with monoclonal antibody Ki 67 (MIB -1). At least 100 cells in eight to 10 representative fields were counted. The Ki 67 index was expressed as the percentage of positive cells. In malignant canine mammary gland tumours, Ki 67 index ranged from 2.23 to 26.34 (14.45 ± 0.51). A statistically significant difference in the Ki 67 index (P< 0.05) was found between alive and dead group of dogs. Ki 67 index correlated with histological staging as most tumours in stage II had higher Ki 67 index and showed tumour related deaths. A clear association between the death due to malignancy and Ki 67 index was evident using Ki 67 index median count cut off value of 14.27 Thus Ki 67 index was good indicator of malignancy and dogs having Ki67 index greater than 14.27 have poor prognosis for mammary gland tumours.
Key Words: Ki 67 index, histological staging, mammary gland tumour, post surgical follow up, prognostic value.
Download full article – 06: V.4,-N.1,-06-20881_2011_3_16_3_48
v.4, n.1, 07
The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical use of the natural latex biomembrane in diaphragmatic injuries produced experimentally in rabbits. Fifteen healthy adult male and female New Zealand rabbits were employed. The rabbits were assigned to the experimental groups I, II, III, IV and V and analyzed on the 15th, 30th, 45th, 60th and 90th days post surgery, respectively. The surgical procedure consisted in the access to the diaphragm at the eighth right intercostal space, removal of a circle portion of approximately 1.5 cm in diameter following surgical repair with a latex membrane. Macroscopically, it was observed an excellent healing process during the experimental period. The clinical observations, complemented by the histological analysis, indicate that the latex membrane is useful for repair of traumatic inuries of the diaphragm of rabbits.
Key words: Biomembrane, cicatrization, diaphragm, implant, latex, rabbit.
Download full article – 07: V.4,-N.1,-07-20881_2011_3_16_4_18
v.4, n.1, 08
A case of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is described in a 9-month-old, male, mixed breed calf from Espírito Santo State, southeastern Brazil. MCF had not yet been described in this region. The clinical course was 5 days and clinical signs included proprioceptive deficits, depression, dyspnea, coughing, nasal discharge, and erosive-ulcerative lesions in the oral cavity. Necropsy findings included erosive-ulcerative lesions in the alimentary tract and bronchopneumonia. Histopathological exam revealed widespread lymphoplasmacytic vasculitis associated with fibrinoid necrosis of vessel walls, mainly in the vessels of carotid rete mirabile. The diagnosis of MCF was made based on clinical, necropsy and histological findings.
Key Words: Diseases of cattle, viral diseases, malignant catarrhal fever, pathology.
Download full article – 08: V.4,-N.1,-08-20881_2011_3_16_5_37
v.4, n.1, 09
We report here two postmortem cases of dogs with intravascular lymphomatosis affecting the central nervous system. Intravascular lymphomatosis is represented by an exclusively intravascular proliferation of neoplastic lymphoid cells. To characterize the origin of the neoplastic cells, we have proceeded with immunohistochemical analysis to identify B and T lymphocytes and endothelial cells. The results showed predominance of cells from the T cell lineage, and no evidence of B cell origin was found. Few cells from one dog also exhibited cytoplasmatic staining for vimentin and Von Willebrand factor. Although in one case some immunophenotype diversity was observed, the massive presence of CD3 positive cells confirmed these neoplasms as intravascular lymphomatosis of T cell origin.
KeyWords: cell marker, immunohistochemistry, lymphoproliferative disorder, neoplasia, neuropathology, T cell
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v.4, n.1, 10
Canine mastitis is an infrequent condition that occurs most commonly in the postpartum period due to ascending bacterial infection. This report aims to describe clinical, pathological and bacteriological aspects of mastitis caused by Staphylococcus hyicus accompanied by disseminated superficial lymphadenitis in a dog. In the postpartum period the animal showed clinical signs of prostration, dyspneia, and unresponsivess to environment. At physical examination, hypothermia, dehydration and subcutaneous edema of the limbs were detected. Gross and histologic features were consistent with marked purulent and necro-hemorrhagic mastitis accompanied by lymphangitis, lymphadenitis and thromboembolic pneumonia. Isolation and biochemical identification confirmed the infection by Staphylococcus hyicus. This study shows that one must be attentive not only of the risk of uterine infection postpartum, but also of the possibility of mammary gland infection.
Key Words: dog, mastitis, lymphadenitis, Staphylococcus hyicus.
Download full article – 10: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-10-20881_2011_3_25_45_16
v.4, n.1, 11
A 6-year-old, female, mixed-breed dog was presented for necropsy with history of prostration and incoordination followed by circling to the right and seizures. There were no gross findings in the brain. Histologically, there were numerous neoplastic glial cells throughout the thalamus, midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata. Moderate multifocal lymphoplasmacytic perivascular cuffings were also present in the same areas. In addition, severe multifocal proliferation of glial cells was observed in the leptomeninge and white matter of the cerebellum. The neoplastic cells observed in the brain stem were negative for GFAP, while in the cerebellum the neoplastic glial cells were strongly labeled with GFAP and vimentin. Based on the histopathological findings and on the immunohistochemical results, a diagnosis of gliomatosis cerebri was made.
Key Words: dog diseases; gliomatosis cerebri; CNS neoplasia; neuropathology.
Download full article – 11: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-11-20881_2011_3_16_10_48
v.4, n.1, 12
Lipoblastoma is a rare benign tumor arising from embryonic white fat and occurs exclusively in infants and children. This neoplasia has an excellent prognosis but its growth rate can be rapid and reach a large size. In veterinary literature lipoblastoma has been reported only in a new born (2 day old) male calf. This case report describes the clinical, histochemical and immunohistochemical features of a lipoblastoma in a dog. The dog was followed up for 20 months after surgery and found to be healthy with no signs of recurrence.
Key Words: Lipoblastoma, fat tissue, soft tissue tumor, dog
Download full article – 12: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-12-20881_2011_3_17_0_3
v.4, n.1, 13
Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is a neoplasm transmitted by the physical transfer of viable tumor cells by direct contact with injured skin and/or mucous tissue. These cells can transpose across histocompatibility barriers into unrelated hosts. This review focuses on the biology of apoptosis and the interaction of proteins involved in this process, as well as p53, p63 and the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. As such, this disease offer unique opportunity to study the biology of transplantable tumours and the interaction of proteins involved in apoptosis process and the prognosis of CTVT.
Key Words: CTVT, Sticker´s sarcoma, apoptosis, dog
Download full article – 13: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-13-20881_2011_3_16_21_6