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Cancer, a fatal malignant disturbance of growth is one of the major causes of mortality in canines. Of the many neoplasms that are known to affect dogs, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is relatively more common and highly malignant. In the present investigation, 138 cases of tumortumor like growths were evaluated and 17 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) encountered were studied in relation to its occurrence in population, age, sex, breed, gross appearance, location of the lesion, cytological findings, histological observations and immunoreactivity to cytokeratins. Cytological smears revealed large number of malignant squamous cells occurring either individuallyin clusters exhibiting pleomorphism, anisokaryosis and anisocytosis. Well differentiated forms, histologically showed cordsnests of proliferating neoplastic cells consisting of immature polyhedral cells at the periphery and eosinophilic lamellated keratin pearls at the centre. The moderately differentiated ones were characterized by proliferating cells forming cordsnests of cells separated by thin fibrous stroma. The varying intensity of immunostaining observed to 34&61538;E12 raised against high molecular weight cytokeratins (1, 5, 10 and 14) correlated well with cellular differentiation with high expression in well differentiated and less in poorly differentiated SCC.
Key Words: squamous cell carcinoma, cytology, differentiation, immunoreactivity, high molecular weight cytokeratins
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v.4, n.2, 17
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a lethal genetic disease characterized by progressive muscle degeneration that usually had been used the Golden Retriever as a model for studying the disease (GRMD – Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy). A total of 16 male dystrophic Golden Retrievers dogs between 5 to 51 months of age were examined in the present study. The animals were classified as dystrophic according to two simultaneous complementary criteria: genotypic analysis and serum creatine kinase levels. The macroscopic abnormalities of the different organs and tissues and histopathological features were described using hematoxylin-eosin. The lesions in the skeletal muscles associated with the digestive problems resulted in cachexia with different intensities in all the dystrophic dogs. Cardiac muscle involvement was found in 87,5% of the GRMD dogs resulting, however, in cardiac failure in only 18,8% of the animals. The musculature of the diaphragm was hypertrophic in all affected animals resulting in progressive respiratory muscle weakness and at later stages in respiratory failure (81,25%). The liver abnormalities found in dystrophic dogs were originated mainly from heart disease and developed progressively. Hyperemia of mucosa and granular material indicated changes in the functioning and emptying of bladder. The germinative lineage cells presented moderate to severe degeneration probably due to degeneration of the scrotum and cremaster muscle which prevented the proper thermo-regulation of the testicle. Our results highlight the fact that there is significant impairment of the cardiac, respiratory and skeletal muscle systems in GRMD dogs since the age of five months. In addition, significant alterations of the gastrointestinal tract, urinary and reproductive systems are indicating the presence of degenerative lesions in the smooth musculature.
Key Words: Golden Retriever, muscular dystrophy, gross morphology, histological features
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The present study had the objective of evaluating calcium accumulations in muscle fibers and their correlation with the canine muscular dystrophy. After the deaths of the animals (13 dystrophic and 3 non-dystrophic), samples of the skeletal muscles were collected. The material was stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Gomori’s modified trichrome and alizarin red S technique (pH 4.3). The histopathological changes were analyzed and the proportions of calcium-positive (CPF) and negative muscle fibers were evaluated. Histopathological changes such as muscle fiber diameter changes, necrosis, hyalinization, presence of inflammatory infiltrate and fatty atrophy were identified in all the dystrophic muscles. Statistically significant differences in numbers of CPF between dystrophic muscles and non-dystrophics were observed for the masseter (6%), brachial biceps (5%) and triceps, sartorius and femoral biceps (4%) muscles. The identifying calcium is of interest as a parameter for helping in diagnostic screening.
Key Words: canine muscular dystrophy, intracellular calcium, Duchenne muscular dystrophy
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Out of 78 adult laboratory and wild rats investigated for parasitic diseases, 19.23% were diagnosed positive for spontaneous Hymenolepis diminuta infection. Infection was more in laboratory rats (24%) than wild rats (10.71%). Sex wise distribution of H. diminuta infection was also higher male laboratory rats than females while wild rat females were found free from this tapeworm. Value of hemoglobin was significantly decreased in H. diminuta infected laboratory rats than controls. Significant increased plasma protein values in H. diminuta infected wild rats than uninfected wild rats were observed. Serum values of alkaline phosphatase, SGPT and SGOT were significantly increased in H. diminuta infected wild rats than uninfected wild rats and other groups. Tissue enzyme studies revealed that although there were alterations of different enzymes in non-target organs of H. diminuta infected rats, but only lipid peroxidation, acetylcholinesterase and catalase were altered in target organ intestine. On SEM, the segments of H. diminuta showed width from 1120 to 1160 µm while length ranged from 120 to 150 µm. Most of segments had vertical lining and raised border on its each side of circumference. On necropsy examination, intestines were found to contain 25-40 mm long and about 1 mm wide, 3-4more tapeworms in each rat. Relative weight of intestine was significantly increased in H. diminuta laboratory rats than controls. Histopathologically, intestinal lumina showed varying number of H. diminuta segments with serrated borders. Occasionally, scolex of tapeworm attached with intestinal mucosa was also seen. H. diminuta infection caused pressure atrophy, compressed and atrophied villi, degeneration and desquamation of lining epithelium cells and excessive mucin secretion in intestinal mucosa and lumina. Occasionally, eosinophilic cellular infiltration was also observed. High prevalence of H. diminuta infection in rats is matter of concern as zoonosis in contact human beings.
Key Words: Hymenolepis diminuta, wild and laboratory rats, zoonosis.
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The objective of this study was to report the presence of Neospora caninum-associated abortion in bovines at a farm in the northeast region of São Paulo State. In January 2010, it was sent to the Department of Pathology, UNESP-Jaboticabal, a bovine fetus with an estimated age of seven months, which was natural of a dairy farm with 300 animals and an average daily production of 3,000 liters of milk, nearly 20 liters per cow. The animals were vaccinated against rabies, foot and mouth disease, carbuncle, brucellosis, leptospirosis, bovine herpes virus type I and bovine viral diarrhea virus. The herd consisted of purebred Holstein animals, Jersey, and mostly by crossbred animals 7-8 (gir x holstein). During necropsy, samples of the serosanguineous liquid present at the thoracic cavity and the heart of the fetus were collected for the detection of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies through Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA). Fragments of brain, cerebellum, tongue, liver, heart and kidneys were collected for the execution of histopathology (HP), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Polymerase Chain Reaction. In order that IFA could be performed, the owner was requested blood samples without anticoagulants of the mother and other cows in the farm, withwithout a history of abortion. At necropsy, it was verified a severe autolysis of the fetus. The serology of the fetus was 1:25, while the serology of the mother was 1:3,200. At HP, it was observed discrete multifocal non-suppurative encephalomyelitis characterized by gliosis and mononuclear inflammatory infiltration associated with cellular debris. DNA amplification of N. caninum was positive in fragments of brain, tongue, cerebellum, heart and kidneys. At IHC, it has been observed immunoreactivity to a cyst located in the tongue. The owner reported that his herd showed endemic episodes of abortion, while 27.69% (18/65) of the 65 animals sampled were seropositive. Although it has not been a significant difference (p>0.05), a higher seropositivity was observed in animals with a history of abortion (10/26) 38.46%, in comparison with animals without previous abortion (8/39) 20.51%. These findings show that the abortion under study was provoked by the protozoan N. caninum, while this is the first report concerning cattle in the northeast region of São Paulo State.
Key Words: Neosporosis, cattle, abortion
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Cadmium has been recognized as one of the most toxic environmental and industrial pollutants. In the present study, twenty-four adult poultry birds were divided into four groups. In groups II, III and IV cadmium sulphate was given in drinking water at the dose rate of 100, 200 and 400 mg/L, respectively for 20 days to assess the effect of cadmium on the antioxidant defence system and lipid peroxidation (LPO) of erythrocytes of adult poultry birds as compared to group I, which was maintained at basal diet and normal drinking water. It was observed that the activities of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased during subacute cadmium toxicity. The activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was non-significantly (P>0.05) increased in group II and III; but, non-significantly decreased in group IV. The level of blood glutathione (GSH) was significantly decreased in cadmium exposed birds. However, the lipid peroxidation (MDA) was significantly increased in the cadmium exposed groups as compared to group I. On the basis of present study, it could be concluded that cadmium exposure altered the activities of antioxidant enzymes of erythrocytes and produce oxidative stress by disturbing the oxidative and antioxidative balance of the adult poultry birds.
Key Words: Cadmium, poultry, catalase, superoxide dismutase, blood glutathione, glutathione-s-transferase, lipid peroxidation.
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Haemophilus parasuis is one of the first and most prevalent colonizers of piglets, affecting the swine population from 2 weeks to 4 months of age. In this work, the relative incidence of H. parasuis isolated from swine in the west of Santa Catarina from 2007 to 2010 was investigated. White, flat and non-hemolytic colonies (satellitism growth with Staphylococcus aureus) of approximately 1 mm in length were identified by biochemical tests. Out of 384 samples examined during this period, 32 (8.33%) tested positive to isolation of H. parasuis. In 2007 and 2008 only 1 case of H. parasuis was isolated per year from a total of 62 and 60 samples, respectively. In 2009, 19 cases from 126 (15.08%) and in 2010, 11 cases of H. parasuis were isolated from a total of 136 samples (8.09%). These results suggest a growing incidence of this bacterium in the swine flock in this area.
Key Words: Haemophilus parasuis, swine, respiratory system, microbiology
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This article describes the gross, histopathological, and immunohistochemical findings of a mixed thymoma in a 2-year-old, mixed-breed, female goat. A large space-occupying neoplastic growth was observed within the cranial thoracic cavity, which by histology was well-encapsulated and formed by the proliferation of spindle-shaped epithelial cells arranged in solid sheetsrosette-like formations with varying accumulations of lymphocytes. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the neoplastic epithelial cells expressed cytokeratin, with negative immunoreactivity to vimentin, thyroglobulin, Chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. The lymphocytic population expressed CD3 and CD2. These findings favor a diagnosis of mixed thymoma.
Key Words: goat, thymoma, immunohistochemistry, pathology
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The present report describes the occurrence of skin metastasis in a dog with primary renal carcinoma. The clinical findings included progressive weight loss, inappetence, palpable abdominal mass and cutaneous nodules. The histopathological examination was carried out after unilateral nephrectomy and was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The immunohistochemical and histopathological findings characterized this case as renal cell carcinoma with skin metastasis.
Key Words: diseases of dogs, skin metastasis, renal tumors, immunohistochemistry, renal carcinoma
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Bilateral giant pulmonary emphysematous bullae were diagnosed in a calf. The necropsy revealed two gas-filled bullae completely involving the right and left diaphragmatic pulmonary lobes. Histologically, the outer surface of the giant bullae was made of visceral pleura while the inner layer consisted of the adjacent lung, which presented signs of atelectasisemphysema. Aspiration bronchopneumonia was observed in the right and left apical lobes. The animal died as the result of acute respiratory failure.
Key Words: cattle diseases, pulmonary emphysema, respiratory system
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A 12-year-old spayed female miniature pinscher canid presented to the referring veterinarian with a 1 month history of a right eyelid mass. No other masses besides a previously diagnosed lipoma were identified after physical examination and thoracic radiographic examination. Histologically, neoplastic cells formed glands and were subdivided by a fibrous stroma, exhibited moderate cellular pleomorphism, and were immunoreactive for cytokeratin 7. Based on these findings an apocrine adenocarcinoma of the eyelid was diagnosed.
Key Words: Apocrine adenocarcinoma, canine, eyelid, cytokeratin, CK7, CK20
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A thirteen-year-old female German Spitz dog was referred to Veterinary Hospital of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina, with acute paraplegia and pain in pelvic limbs for two days. The clinical sings, as lack of femoral pulse and cold distal limbs, were consistent with ischemic neuromyopathy due to aortic thromboembolism. Soon after the examination, she had a severe epistaxis and died. On postmortem examination it was observed a thrombus adhered to the aorta trifurcation and a mass occupying the position of the right adrenal gland, which was diagnosed as pheochromocytoma on histological and immunohistochemistry examinations.
Key Words: dog, ischemic neuromyopathy, adrenal tumor, immunohistochemistry
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An epulis in the oral cavity of an aged captive lion in Brasilia, Brazil, is reported. Oral inspection of the animal revealed a pale blunt and irregular multilobulated mass involving the upper left caninum tooth. Microscopic features of the mass included a fibrous stroma (mesenchyme) interspaced with a few blood vessels, suggesting a periodontal ligament origin. The dense collagen fiber background had a moderate cellularity composed of regularly orientated fibroblasts and it surrounded foci of osteoidmineralized material. Mild overlying gingival epithelial hyperplasia with some irregular cellular cords was also observed. Based on the location of the lesion as well as the gross and microscopic features, the lesion was classified as fibromatous epulis and is believed to be the first report in this species.
Key Words: Epulis, lion, Panthera leo, neoplasms, oral cavity.
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The purpose of this paper is to establish criteria that could guide the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of canine mammary neoplasias. It was elaborated during the Mammary Pathology Meeting: Diagnosis, Prognosis and Treatment of the Canine Mammary Neoplasm, held on November 6th and 7th, 2010 in Belo Horizonte – MG, Brazil, sponsored by the Laboratory of Comparative Pathology – UFMG, with the support of the Brazilian Association of Veterinary Pathology (ABPV) and Brazilian Association of Veterinary Oncology (ABROVET). Academics from several regions of Brazil were present and contributed to this work.
Key Words: Mammary neoplasms, animal, dogs, medical oncology.
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