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The degree of genetic and pathologic variation exhibited by a turkey Coronavirus (TCoV) strain was investigated after nine serial passages in 25-day-old turkey embryos obtained from wild broad-breasted bronze breeders. In spite of spleen, liver, kidneys, cloacal bursa and thymus have been collected and analysed, the main histopathological changes were only documented in the intestine sections. Microscopic lesions were characterized as mild enteritis, low degree of enterocyte vacuolization and detachment of the intestinal villous after five consecutive passages and were considered absent in the last passages. Genealogic analysis based on S1 and S2 DNA sequences suggested that Brazilian isolate might be considered as originated from TCoV strains circulating in the United States, as 100% identity with TCoV-Gl strain. Although S1 S2 sequences from each passage revealed no significant point mutations, and no correlation could be speculate between S2 nucleotide changes and pathologic features in infected embryos. This is the first demonstration of wild turkey embryos as a model for TCoV isolation and propagation.
Key Words: Turkey Coronavirus, spike gene, wild turkey species, pathology
Download full article – 32: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-32-20881_2011_11_13_34_54t al
v.4, n.3, 33
Myxomatous mitral valve degeneration (MMVD)endocardiosis is a heart valve disease that occurs in many mammalian species, especially in humans, dogs and pigs. Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in the MMVD development. NO can be indirectly evaluated by the nitric-oxide synthase (NOS) expression and by the histochemical reaction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d). The aim of this study was to evaluate NOS activity, by NADPH-d reaction, in the anterior leaflet of dogs with regular mitral valves and in those with MMVD, as well as in young swine and old females, comparing the reaction level with the degree of endocardiosis disease and also the histological alterations. Twelve mitral valves of dogs and 22 of swine were used for the research. All the valves were macroscopically analyzed for the occurrencenot of endocardiosis. They were fixed in a 4% paraformaldehyde, exposed to NADPH-d reaction, routinely processed and microscopically evaluated for the detection of mucopolysaccharides (MPS) deposition, collagen degeneration, fibrosis and level of endocardiosis. In dogs, relation was observed between higher intensity of the NADPH-d reaction, higher endocardiosis degree, MPS deposition as well as the collagen degeneration. No alteration in color was observed in pigs´ valves during NADPH-d reaction. In conclusion, NO works in canine mitral valve remodeling extracellular matrix and plays an important role in endocardiosis disease. In swine, the lack of reaction reinforces the absence of macroscopical endocardiosis lesions, suggesting restrict NO actionmajor differences in the structures of swine valves.
Key Words: endocardiosis, NOS, NADPH, valve, dog, swine
Download full article – 33: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-33-20881_2011_11_21_26_2t al
v.4, n.3, 34
Lymphoma is a malignant clonal expansion of lymphoid cells, and is reported to be one of the most common hematopoietic neoplasms in dogs. The purpose of this study was to perform a survey of lymphomas diagnosed at the Service of Animal Pathology of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1995 to 2009, and determine their morphological subtypes and immunophenotypes. Breed, age and gender were recorded. The canine lymphomas were classified according to the d Kiel classification, and all the cases were submitted to immunostaining for CD3 and CD79a antibodies to reveal their TB origin, respectively. In addition, mitotic figures were counted in all samples, in 10 microscopic fields. Mixed breed dogs were the most affected breed (43%), followed by Boxer (14%), German Shepherd (11%), Brazilian terrier (3%), Poodle (3%) and Rottweiler (3%). Other breeds were represented at a rate below 1%. Among the 65 cases of lymphomas, 30 cases were found in females and 35 in males. The mean age was 8.7 years with a range of 5 months to 15 years. The most frequent localization was multicentric lymphadenopathy (37%), followed by extranodal (23%), cutaneous (20%), alimentary tract (18%) and mediastinal site (2%). From 65 canine lymphomas, 55 (85%) had T-cell origin and 10 (15%) had B-cell origin. Among mitotic index, 51% (n=33) of T-cell origin had high mitotic index, 34% (n=22) had a low mitotic index; 9% (n=6) of B-cell origin had high mitotic index and 6% (n=4) had low mitotic index. The most common subtypes were pleomorphic small cell and centroblastic polymorphic type for T-cell lymphoma and B-cell lymphoma, respectively. The 55 T-cell lymphomas were subtyped as: 19 (34%) of pleomorphic small cell, 11 (20%) of cutaneous T cell, high grade, 10 (18%) of lymphoblastic, 4 (7%) of aggressive large granular cell, 3 (5%) of pleomorphic mixed, 2 (4%) of cutaneous T cell, low grade, 2 (4%) of pleomorphic large cell, 2 (4%) of plasmacytoid, 1 (2%) of immunoblastic and 1 (2%) of prolymphocytic. The 10 B-cell lymphomas were subtyped as: 3 (30%) of centroblastic polymorphic, 2 (20%) of Burkitt, 2 (20%) of lymphoplasmacytic, 1 (10%) of anaplastic/mediastinal, 1 (10%) of small lymphocytic and 1 (10%) of prolymphocytic. Our results are in accordance with other studies which state that T-cell lymphomas are the most common in dogs. The possible factors that contribute to the development of lymphomas in dogs remain unknown.
Key Words: canine, lymphoma, immunophenotyping, d Kiel, histological types
Download full article – 34: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-34-20881_2011_11_13_35_59t al
v.4, n.3, 35
Canine visceral leishmaniasis, a systemic and chronic zoonosis, is caused in Brazil by the protozoan Leishmania chagasi, a widely accepted synonym for Leishmania infantum. The agent and disease has recently arrived in Uberlândia city, Minas Gerais, Brazil. In this research, hematological parameters and gross lesions of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis were compared, to highlight aspects of disease in a recent outbreak. For this purpose forty mongrel dogs from Uberlândia seroreagents by ELISA and RIFI tests were ed. Animals were categorized as asymptomatic,(AS); oligosympytomatic (OS) and symptomatic (SS). Blood samples were collected and dogs were euthanized according to Brazilian Federal rules. Animals were then submitted to standard necropsy procedures at Veterinary Pathology sector of the Federal University of Uberlândia. Most prominent alterations were of observed in respiratory and integumentary systems, with pilose rarefaction (OS: 41.7%, SS: 60.1%), specially periocular (OS: 25.0 %, SS: 26.1%) and thoracic/pelvic members (OS: 25.0%, SS: 30.4%). Onychogryphosis (OS: 41.7%, SS: 39.1%), pulmonar edema (OS: 25.0%, SS: 39.1%), and congestion (OS: 41.7%, SS: 60.9%). Moreover animals displayed increase of several organs; liver (67.5%), spleen (60%), lymph nodes (72.5%) and kidney (47.5%). Hematological alterations included low red cell counts and decreased hemoglobin content. Overall, 27.5% of animals presented leukocitosis, 52.5 % of dogs had increased band neutrophil counts 5.0 % had basophilia and 42.5% monocytopenia. No correlations was found between hematological findings and clinical status of animals (asymptomatic, oligosymptomaticsymptomatic). Presumptively, we can conclude that, in asymptomatic animals there are hematological as well as gross alterations.
Key Words: hematology, Uberlândia, visceral canine leishmaniasis, pathology
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White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) was isolated from diseased shrimps presenting with clinical signs of WSSV infection. The seed virus was identified as WSSV by PCR, and used to inoculate to specific pathogen free (SPF) P. vannamei bloodstocks. WSSV was purified as described by Huang from infected gills from inoculated animals that were homogenized in a blender and partially purified by differential centrifugation. The final purification was carried out using density gradient in 10-40% NaBr and purified virus used for morphological analysis using transmission electron microscopy. A negative staining method using 2% PTA was used for purified virus, and electron staining with lead citrate and uranylacetate was used for ultra thin sections of infected tissues. This analysis determined that i) the spikes of intact virions could be clearly identified on the virion surface and on a partially broken envelopes, ii) the nucleocapsid structures were similar to those previously reported, even though the so called “ring” structure described previously was different and, iii) negative staining of purified WSSV fractions identified nucleosome like structures.
Key Words: WSSV, nucleocapsid, ring structure, nucleosome, virion spikes, aquatic organisms.
Download full article – 36:DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-36-20881_2011_11_13_37_15t al
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During the year 2010, 66 goats suffering from mucoid to hemorrhagic diarrhea were submitted to the Pathology Division, Diagnostic Veterinary Laboratory, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. After postmortem examination, tissue specimens were obtained from liver, lungs, heart, brain, stomach, small and large intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes for microbiological and histopathological examinations. Data from Microbiology Laboratory revealed that goats had intestinal coccidiosis (34 cases), paratuberculosis (9 cases), enterotoxaemia (22 cases) and mycotic gastritis (1 case). In the present report, we focused on the pathological pictures of the above mentioned diseases in examined goats.
Key Words: goats, coccidiosis, paratuberculosis, enterotoxaemia, gastritis
Download full article – 37: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-37-20881_2011_11_13_37_44alil
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A nine years old, Graded Murrah she buffalo was brought to the veterinary hospital with clinical signs of labour and dystocia. A caesarian section was performed and a dead male calf was noticed in the uterus. At necropsy, the calf had distended abdomen with the presence of an enlarged mass. Histopathologically, the tissue sections from the mass revealed the presence of blastemal cells forming glomeruli like structures and tubules in some areas and mesenchymal tissue suggesting a congenital nephroblastoma that developed during fetal life resulting in maternal dystocia and death of the calf.
Key Words: buffalo calf, kidney, nephroblastoma
Download full article – 38: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-38-20881_2011_11_13_38_15
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The clinical and the pathological findings associated with Platynosomum fastosum-induced infections are described in Domestic shorthair cats by the retrospective analyses of archival records. Icterus was the most predominant clinical alteration observed; three cats demonstrated clinical manifestations of hepatic encephalopathy. The laboratory findings of two cases confirmed severe hepatic dysfunction due to elevations in the serum concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, phosphatase alkaline, and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Hypertrophy of bile ducts occurred in all animals. All cats demonstrated adenomatous hyperplasia of biliary epithelium and/or periductal fibrosis associated with intraductal trematode and/or intralesional ova of P. fastosum. One cat had pathological alterations consistent with cystic mucinous hyperplasia and gallbladder mucocele associated with intralesional ova of P. fastosum, while dilated cystic intra-hepatic structures associated with chronic platynosomiasis occurred in another cat. Platynosomiasis was an incidental finding in one cat.
Key Words: cats, Platynosomum fastosum, parasitic cholangitis, pathology.
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Cerebellar abiotrophy (CA) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that has been reported in humans and animals. In cattle, CA had been reported in Bos taurus taurus and crossbreed cattle. CA is characterized by degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells and decrease in the population of granule cells. The pathogenesis of this process is unknown, but it is believed that there is an autosomal recessive heritable factor involved. A 15-month-old Nelore ox (Bos taurus indicus) was sent to a slaughterhouse, where it presented cerebellar ataxia, symmetrical hypermetria, spasticity, ptyalism, and incoordination. There were no macroscopic changes. CNS samples were negative for BSE, rabies, and other infectious pathogens. Microscopically, there was atrophy of the molecular, granular, and Purkinje cell layers of the cerebellar cortex, and a marked and diffuse loss of the Purkinje cells. No other microscopic lesions were observed in CNS. These findings were consistent with cerebellar abiotrophy. To the best of our knowledge, no cases of CA have ever been reported in Bos taurus indicus. Therefore, the present case of CA in Nelore is the first report of the disease in Zebu cattle.
Key Words: Cerebellar cortical abiotrophy, cerebellum, Bos taurus indicus.
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Fibrous osteodystrophy (FO) is a common condition described mainly in domestic species, with only few cases described in wild ones kept in captivity. Herein we report a case of FO in a 2 yr-old female common eland antelope (Taurotragus oryx) maintained in captivity and fed with a horse pelleted ration plus hays. The animal showed a firm bilateral symmetrical enlargement of upper maxillary bones which was submitted to histological evaluation. Microscopic findings were those related to extensive bone resorption and fibroplasia.
Key Words: antelope, eland, fibrous osteodystrophy, pathology, Taurotragus oryx.
Download full article – 41: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-41-20881_2011_11_13_39_58t al
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Broiler chickens aged 40 and 46-days-old from two neighboring flocks belonging to a commercial broiler complex, presenting facial edema, severe respiratory signs and 10% mortality were analyzed. Pneumonic lesions and opaque thoracic and abdominal air sacs with foamy exudate were seen at postmortem examination. Histopathology of lungs showed fibrinoheterophilic pneumonia in both cases. Small pin point colonies with extensive β-hemolytic activity were isolated from tracheal and lung tissue samples and identified as Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results of lung histopathology, bacteriological isolation and PCR identification confirmed the diagnosis of pneumonia caused by β-hemolytic O. rhinotracheale infection in both broiler chicken flocks. This paper appears to be the first report of β-hemolytic O. rhinotracheale field isolates obtained from broiler chickens associated with severe respiratory signs and pneumonia.
Key Words: Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, β-hemolysis, pneumonia, broiler chickens
Download full article – 42: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-42-20881_2011_11_13_40_36t al
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Cryptococcosis in animals is an important fungal disease caused by the encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. This report describes the occurrence of Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus albidus in domestic pigeon (Columba livia), living together with other birds in a breeding center. The animal presented a pinkish, vascularized mass with gelatinous aspect localized subcutaneously under the right lower eyelid, with approximately 2cm in diameter. At microbiological exam it was isolated Cryptococcus gatti from the eyelid mass, lungs and liver, C. albidus from the trachea and both Cryptococcus species from muscle and kidney.
Key Words: Bird diseases, Cryptococcus gatti, Cryptococcus albidus, public health
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Amphibians have suffered the most striking declines among all vertebrates. Infectious diseases are one of the causes and Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is considered the most concerning one. This emerging infectious disease infects a broad variety of amphibians and is considered responsible for numerous declines and extinctions of these animals. Bd has been reported all over the world including Brazil in captive and free living species of amphibians. The origin of this pan-epizootic is unkown. Major histopathological findings include epidermal hyperkeratosis, hyperplasia, and focal necrosis of epidermal cells. The cause of death may be by disruption of ion equilibrium. The chytrid infection may be diagnosed with methods such as histopathology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, conventional PCR, real-time PCR, and nested PCR. The most used treatment is daily baths of itraconazole at 0.01% for five minutes during 11 days. This has been successfully used to treat chytridiomycosis in a few amphibian species. Disinfection protocols are essential for the management of chytridiomycosis in captivity and in the wild. This is an important disease to be studied in Brazil due to the devastating effects that it can cause in amphibians populations.
Key Words: Amphibians, Infectious Disease, Chytridiomycosis, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Brazil
Download full article – 44: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-44-20881_2011_11_13_41_44