v.5, n.1, 1
Download full article – 1: EDITORS-VIEWPOINT-20881_2012_3_30_12_29
v.5, n.1, 2
A 2-year-old captive, male Eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus), with a previous history of neurologic signs episodes, was found dead in its cage without premonitory signs in a private aviary. At necropsy, yellow and caseous nodules were observed in the lungs. Microscopically, the nodules were composed of granulomas that had a necrotic center with intralesional hyphae typical of Aspergillus spp. and a peripheral inflammatory cell response composed of macrophages and multinucleated giant cells. The mycologic culture allowed the isolation and identification of A. flavus from lung samples. The gross and microscopic lesions, in combination with the mycologic identification provided the diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis due to A. flavus infection. To the authors´ knowledge, this is the first report of mycotic pneumonia caused by A. flavus infection in Psittaciformes.
Key Words: Aspergillus flavus, captivity, Eclectus roratus, pneumonia, pulmonary aspergillosis
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v.5, n.1, 3
A twelve-day-old foal was admitted to the Veterinary School of UFMG with profuse diarrhea. The animal was treated with several medications, including antibiotics. Despite the clinical care, the clinical condition did not improve. Due to poor prognosis, the foal was euthanized. Gross and histopathological examinations, showed pseudomembranous and/or membranous glossitis, esophagitis and gastritis with intense amount of pseudohyphae and blastoconidia compatible with Candida spp. Also, fibrinous and necrotizing typhlocolitis was observed. Clostridium difficile was isolated from intestinal contents which were also positive for toxins A/B by ELISA. Using a multiplex-PCR assay, genes encoding toxin A (tcdA) and toxin B (tcdB) were detected. The severe lesions caused by Candida in this foal probably occurred due to changes in the microbiota induced by the treatment with antibiotics. However, the possibility of an acquired immunodeficiency cannot be excluded because information about quantity and quality of the colostrum ingested by this foal was not obtained.
Key Words: foal, Clostridium difficile, enteritis, candidiasis, gastritis.
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v.5, n.1, 4
A 6-year-old, male, mixed-breed horse was presented for necropsy with history of blindness, ataxia, incoordination, peddling movements, nystagmus, depression, muscle spasms, abnormal appetite, mydriasis, abnormal behavior, and recumbency. There were no gross findings in the brain. Microscopically, there was meningoencephalitis characterized by a mild to moderate multifocal granulomatous inflammatory reaction, affecting mainly the cerebellum and, with lesser intensity, the thalamus and brain stem. Intralesional larval nematodes with morphology consistent with Halicephalobus gingivaliswere observed. Based on the histopathological findings, a diagnosis of granulomatous meningoencephalitis by H. gingivalis was made.
Key Words: horse diseases, Halicephalobus gingivalis, verminous meningoencephalitis, neuropathology
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v.5, n.1, 5
A subadult male Chimango Caracara (Milvago chimango temucoensis) was found in an agricultural beef cattle field of Southern Chile. The bird was non-responsive to visualauditory stimulation, and unable to fly. Clinical examination showed moderate body condition, partial blindness and a left wing fracture. The bird was euthanized and a complete necropsy was performed. The most important macroscopic findings were a complete left radius fracture, a subcutaneous hematoma over the occipital bone region and the complete loss of structure of the left pallium and striatum of the telencephalon. Necrotic areas of greenish discoloration in the caudal telencephalon were observed. Histologically, the brain had wide areas of liquefactive necrosis surrounded by abundant inflammatory infiltrate. Escherichia coli was isolated from the affected areas of the brain. Although bacterial encephalitis is uncommon among free ranging birds, it should be considered as a candidate diagnosis in wild birds with neurological signs.
Key Words: encephalitis, Milvago chimango, E. coli., wild bird.
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v.5, n.1, 6
In Argentina, cases of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) are suspected to have occurred according to macro and microscopic lesions. However, none has been corroborated by molecular tests. We describe here the first laboratory confirmed case of MCF in Argentina occurring in American bison confined in the Buenos Aires Zoo.
Key Words: OvHV-2, bison, MCF, PCR
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v.5, n.1, 7
An outbreak of proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy in a commercial pig farm, characterized by granulomatous enteritis, was studied by slaughter checks and by histopathological, histochemical and immunohistochemical studies. Six of the postmortem examined pigs (117-122-day-old) with diagnosis of porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE) showed granulomatous enteritis and 4.3% of the 465 slaughtered pigs showed gross lesions of PPE. A total of 33 of the 66 ileum samples had histopathological changes, whereas 17 of them had granulomatous enteritis and PPE lesions. Lawsonia intracellulariswas immunolabeled in 52 of the ileum samples in epithelial cells and within granulomatous inflammation in Peyer´s patches and in 28 samples of mesenteric lymph nodes. Porcine circovirus type 2 was only detected by immunohistochemistry in 4 ileum samples and in 5 mesenteric lymph nodes. Since there was a strong statistically significant association between granulomatous enteritis and L. intracellularis infection, granulomatous enteritis could be considered as a part of the PPE complex.
Key Words: swine, enteritis, granulomatous, immunohistochemistry, Lawsonia intracellularis.
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v.5, n.1, 8
In recent years, some Ecuadorian shrimp farmers have reported several cases of muscle necrosis in P. vannamei grow out cultures, associated to low mortalities at harvest. This abnormal condition is characterized by focal to extensive necrotic areas in striated tail muscle tissues, displaying a white, opaque appearance. Furthermore, histological analysis from suspected samples with macroscopic lesions revealed a loss of sarcomeric structure accompanied by coagulative muscle necrosis along with hemocytic infiltration. Two viruses, not reported in Ecuador, are described as etiological agents of muscle necrosis inP. vannamei: infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) and Penaeus vannamei nodavirus (PvNV). In this study, the etiology of the muscle necrosis cases found in the Pacific white shrimp P. vannamei cultured in Ecuador was examined. This muscle necrosis was hypothesized to be caused by an infectious agent. Three sequential challenge tests, using diseased P. vannamei with macroscopic lesions (opaque, whitish discolorations in the abdominal muscles) as starting material (crude inoculum), were carried out. Essentially, histological examination confirmed that most of the challenged shrimp had lesions in skeletal muscle, including multifocal necrosis, fibrocytic inflammation and phagocytosis. In the first trial, 7 challenged shrimp (out of 10) presented multifocal necrosis and hemocytic infiltration in the skeletal muscle. In the second trial, 14 challenged shrimp (out of 20) exhibited coagulative muscle necrosis and hemocytic infiltration. In the third trial, 48 challenged shrimp (out of 69) showed muscle necrosis and hemocytic infiltration. There were no mortalities throughout the all four-week trials. All challenged shrimp tested by RT-PCR assay were negative for IMNV. In our experimental procedures, muscle necrosis could be consistently reproduced through three sequential trials, confirming that the disease has an infectious etiology. Our results suggest that the etiological agent of this disease could be a new infectious agenta different strain of IMNV.
Key Words: Muscle necrosis, hemocytic infiltration, infectious etiology, Penaeus vannamei.
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