v.5, n.2, 9
Download Full Article – 9: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-9-20881_2012_8_18_5_17
v.5, n.2, 10
Download Full Article – 10: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-10-20881_2012_8_18_17_43
v.5, n.2, 11
This study aimed to compare the glycemic values obtained with a glucometer with those determined by a colorimetric enzymatic assay in venous blood as well as to evaluate the possibility of using capillary blood samples of dogs with diabetes mellitus. A group with 30 diabetic dogs was formed and from each dog three blood samples were obtained for glycemic evaluations by different methods and blood collection sites. The mean glycemic values showed no significant difference between the different sites of blood collection and methods (P=0.90). Venous, pinna and carpal pad blood glucose showed excellent correlation with the colorimetric enzymatic assay (r=0.98; r=0.95 and r=0.96 respectively) and the obtained values fit properly the clinically acceptable intervals in the error grid analysis. The present study revealed that carpal pad, venous and pinna glucose measurements are clinically acceptable and this method is feasible for use in hospitalized diabetic dogs. The sample attainment of carpal pad proved to be effective and a viable alternative. Further work is necessary to assess the utility of this technique in a home environment.
Key Words: glycemia, venous blood sample, pinna, carpal pad, diabetes mellitus.
Download Full Article – 11: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-11-20881_2012_8_18_18_26
v.5, n.2, 12
This study aimed to characterize the true epidemiological role played by the Chinese goose (Anser cygnoides) as a potential source of infection by the Newcastle disease virus (NDV). For this, Specific-Pathogen-Free chicks (SPF) were used and were housed with Chinese geese that had been inoculated with a pathogenic strain (velogenic viscerotropic, strain São João do Meriti) of NDV (DIE50=108.15/0.1 mL) pathogenic to chickens, by the ocular-nasal route. Each group was composed of 6 SPF Leghorn chicks and 3 geese. At 6 days (Group I) and 14 days (Group II) after inoculation of the Chinese geese with NDV, SPF chicks were put into direct contact with each goose group. Cloacal swabs were collected from both species (Chinese geese and SPF chicks) 6, 10 and 20 days after challenge to genome viral excretion by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Chinese geese did not demonstrate any clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND). They were refractory to the clinical disease with the NDV. However, NDV genome was detected 20 days after challenge. Therefore, NDV carrier status was demonstrated by Chinese geese. Moreover, 100% of SPF chicks housed with the infected Chinese geese had died by 6 (Group I) and 14 days (Group II) after challenge. Thus, the transmission of the pathogenic virus from the Chinese geese to cohabiting SPF chicks was evident within 20 days of the experimental infection. This reveals the epidemiological importance of Chinese geese as a potential transmitter of NDV infection to other commercial birds that could be raised in close proximity.
Key Words: Chinese geese, Anser cygnoides, Newcastle disease, epidemiology, NDV carrier, source of NDV infection.
Download Full Article – 12: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-12-20881_2012_8_5_23_17
v.5, n.2, 13
Gastroduodenal ulceration is found in 90% of Thoroughbred race horses. The clinical and economical importance of gastric ulcers and the scarce information about the subject in Brazil make this investigation essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate and map grossly and microscopically the gastroduodenal lesions in race horses according to the Updated Sidney System and the Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome Council (EGUSC) Classification. Necropsy was performed in 14 horses and macroscopy was described. Samples of the gastric regions (14 animals – nonglandular fundus, glandular fundus, margo plicatus, antrum and pylorus) and duodenum (9 animals) were obtained and processed for routine histopathology. Macroscopic evaluation of the lesions based on the Updated Sidney System showed that 100% of the horses had gastric ulcerserosions, mainly located at the margo plicatus. The Updated Sidney System also allowed a macroscopic gastritis classification and revealed that seven horses had enanthematous gastritis (50%), four had hemorrhagic gastritis (28, 6%), and three had erosive gastritis (21, 4%). Based on the EGUSC Classification, the most frequent score is 2 (50%). The score 3 was found in 35,7% of the horses and the scores 1 and 4 in 7,1% each. The score 0 which means intact epithelium, was not seen in any of the horses. Histopathological evaluation based on the Updated Sidney System revealed mild to severe lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, sometimes with areas of neutrophilic infiltrate, demonstrating some activity mainly in the injured mucosa. Lymphoid follicles were found in 92.9% of the animals. This study confirms that gastric ulceration in Brazilian race horses is common, and the majority consists of chronic ulceration of the margo plicatus. The use of the histopathological division of the Updated Sidney System demonstrated that chronic gastritis was predominant and the majority of cells in the inflammatory infiltrate were lymphocytes and plasmocytes. This study also showed that the association of the Updated Sidney System and the EGUSC Classification is feasible and leads to a better understanding of equine gastroduodenal ulceration. Although usually neglected, these lesions may be involved in low performance rates and therefore other investigations are necessary for the elucidation of the etiology and pathogenesis of these ulcers.
Key Words: Gastroduodenal disease, horse, histopathology, gastric ulcer, Updated Sidney System, Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome Council Classification.
Download Full Article – 13: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-13-20881_2012_8_18_19_8
v.5, n.2, 14
The incidence of neoplasia in animals is increasing, and cancer epidemiology can be considered an essential area in veterinary pathology and clinics. The aim of this study was to present a survey of neoplasia in domestic animals diagnosed at the Animal Pathology Service (Serviço de Patologia Animal – SPA), Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. Biopsy and necropsy archival specimens of the SPA were surveyed and all cases with the main diagnosis of neoplasia from 1993 to 2002 were retrieved. Animal species, breed, age, gender, location, and the histological type of neoplasm were recorded and the findings analyzed and formatted to display the epidemiological features of the tumors. A total of 12.118 biopsy and necropsy specimens were processed by the diagnostic service during this period. Among them, 1.971 cases (16%) of neoplasia were found. Most cases of neoplasia were diagnosed in canines (92%, n=1.813), followed by felines (4%, n=82), equines (3%, n=61) and bovines (1%, n=15). Cross breed was the most commonly found breed among dogs (27%, n=492) and cats (40%, n=33). Holstein (47%, n=7) and Mangalarga (28%, n=17) were the most commonly affected breeds in bovines and equines, respectively. The gender incidence of tumors was not significantly different in any species. Dogs, cats and horses were more frequently affected by neoplasia at the age range of 6 to 10 years while cattle were affected at an age range of 1 to 10 years. The most diagnosed neoplasm in dogs was mammary carcinoma (13%, n=244) whereas squamous cell carcinoma was the most diagnosed neoplasm in cats (18%, n=14), cattle (53%, n=8), and horses (33%, n=5). Due to the absence of a veterinary cancer registry in Brazil, epidemiological studies may represent important sources of information on neoplasia in animals, and, additionally, may be a tool in the development of prevention methods in order to control cancer in domestic animals.
Key Words: neoplasia, diagnostic prevalence, epidemiology, domestic species.
Download Full Article – 14: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-14-20881_2012_8_18_20_28
v.5, n.2, 15
Nested reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and SYBR Green real time PCR protocols for the intravitam detection of rabies virus genomic RNA were tested with clinical samples for the first time from rabies suspected animals (n=12). With SYBR Green real time PCR, five saliva samples were detected as positive, hence confirming that, for the sake of ante- mortem detection of rabies in saliva of animals, the sensitivity of real time PCR is more than that of RT-PCR as well as immunofluorescence that could detect rabies in three saliva samples each.
Key Words: Nested RT-PCR, rabies, real time PCR, saliva, SYBR Green.
Download Full Article – 15: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-15-20881_2012_8_18_21_22
v.5, n.2, 16
Rectal adenocarcinomas are uncommon in dogs and usually present poor prognosis. The present work describes the morphological and immunophenotypical findings of a rectal mucinous adenocarcinoma in a bitch. Histological analysis revealed a malignant epithelial proliferation in a tubulopapillary pattern forming multiple intratubular cell layers. Moderate amount of PAS-positive amorphous eosinophilic content within neoplastic tubules and extruded into the stroma was observed. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed neoplastic cells considered positive for cytokeratin, Her-2, COX-2 and E-caderin and with low p53 expression. A high proliferation index was observed. Based on histological and immunophenotypical findings, the diagnosis of mucinous adenocarcinoma was established.
Key Words: Neoplasm, gastrointestinal tract, canine, immunohistochemistry.
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v.5, n.2, 17
A case of anaplastic ventricular adenocarcinoma in an adult, female captive blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) is reported. The bird died suddenly and was submitted to necropsy. The carcass was in poor body condition. A pale, firm neoplastic mass was observed infiltrating the wall of the proventricular-ventricular junction. Histologically, the neoplasm consisted of a poorly demarcated and highly invasive proliferation of cuboidal to columnar neoplastic epithelial cells arranged into small groups and admixed with a dense desmoplastic reaction. Numerous neoplastic cells showed a finely fibrillar, Alcian blue-positive cytoplasmic material. Neoplastic cells were strongly positive for pancytokeratin and negative for vimentin. The diagnosis of anaplastic ventricular adenocarcinoma was based on histological, histochemical, and immunohistochemical findings. These neoplasms are uncommon in psittacine birds and to the best of our knowledge have not been reported in this species.
Key Words: carcinoma, macaw, neoplasms, pathology, psittacine.
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v.5, n.2, 18
Schwannoma is a peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST), commonly found as a spindle cell tumor of autonomic nerves and rarely involving the skin of cattle. The present report describes the histopathology and immunohistochemistry features of a localized (solitary) benign PNST with final diagnosis of cutaneous schwannoma in a 4-year-old female Holstein bovine. The dome-shaped, well circumscribed, firm, non-smooth surfaced mass was composed of spindle-shaped cells arranged predominantly in interlacing fasciclesstreams with a moderate to strong intervening collagenous stroma. Histopathologic changes included typical hypocellular areas with pale scant eosinophilic cytoplasm (Antoni B pattern) similar to myxomatous tissue, and hypercellular areas with deeply eosinophilic cytoplasm (non-typical Antoni A pattern) without nuclear palisadingVerocay bodies formation. Immunohistochemical reactions for S-100 protein, a Schwann cell marker, and vimentin were strong in the neoplastic cells. Other markers as desmin, neuron specific enolase (NSE), CD34, and p53 were all negative. It was concluded that concurrent evaluation of both histological and immunohistochemical features are required for the final diagnosis of schwannomas in domestic animals.
Key Words: Schwannoma, histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), skin, cattle
Download Full Article – 18: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-18-20881_2012_8_18_23_56
v.5, n.2, 19
A 16-year-old Quarter Horse was admitted to the Veterinary Hospital after recurrent epistaxis episodes. Dyspnea and intolerance to exercise were noticed. An irregular multinodular mass was observed in the mucosa of the rostral nasal cavity, causing partial stenosis of the anterior airways. To improve the respiratory condition of the animal, most of the mass was surgically removed. Histologic examination revealed eosinophilic hyaline material in the lamina propria, walls of submucosal lymphatic and blood vessels, and basement membrane of mucosal glands of the nasal cavity. This material stained orange-red with Congo-red, with the characteristic green birefringence under polarizing light, confirming the amyloid diagnosis. Giant cells and mononuclear cell infiltrate were also observed. One year after the partial removal of the lesion, the horse had only mild respiratory signs.
Key Words: type AL amyloidosis, horse, nasal cavity, Paraiba, Northeastern Brazil
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v.5, n.2, 20
Broiler chickens aged 41-day-old from a flock of a broiler complex, presenting depression, reduced food intake, facial edema, dyspnea, gasping, sneezing, and 5% mortality were studied. At necropsy, opaque thoracic and abdominal air sacs and mucous tracheal content were observed. Histopathology of tracheas showed multifocal hyperplasia of mucosa with a large number of small, round and ovoid basophilic organisms on their surface, which were identified as Cryptosporidium spp. In addition, there was an inflammatory response due to infiltration of mononuclear cells and heterophils in the submucosa. Small pin-point colonies without hemolytic activity were isolated from tracheal samples and identified as Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale by conventional and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results of tracheal histopathology, bacteriology, and PCR identification provided the diagnosis of tracheal cryptosporidiosis associated with non-hemolytic O. rhinotrachealesecondary infection. This report describes the unusual dual infection with Cryptosporidiumspp. and non-hemolytic O. rhinotracheale causing tracheitis in broiler chickens.
Key Words: Cryptosporidium spp., non-hemolytic Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, tracheitis, broiler chickens.
Download Full Article – 20: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-20-20881_2012_8_18_25_37
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Thymic lymphoma is a malignant lymphoid neoplasm that affects several species, including cattle. This type of neoplasia can lead to death due to malignant cell infiltration in different organs. The classification of this neoplasm may predict prognosis and response to treatment. Immunophenotyping is one of the ways to perform this classification. There are reports about the performance of immunohistochemistry (IHC) to classify thymic lymphoma only in taurine cattle, therefore the aim of this report is to describe the immunophenotype of a thymic lymphoma in a Nelore cow. Immunostaining was performed with monoclonal antibodies (CD79, CD4 and CD8). The tumor cells showed positive staining only for CD8 T lymphocytes, coinciding with the disease progression, since the T lymphoma type is more aggressive.
Key Words: Immunohistochemistry, thymic lymphoma, CD8 T cell, Nelore breed.
Download Full Article – 21: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-21-20881_2012_8_18_27_4
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Diabetes mellitus is a common disease in dogs and cats. It consists of a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in secretion and/or insulin activity. The islets of Langerhans from donor pancreas may be an alternative for the cure of diabetes, however, this approach is limited because the donation is scarce and complications occur due to the concurrent use of immunosuppressive drugs. For many decades researchers have sought ways to replace pancreatic islets in diabetic individuals. Current studies in progress with stem cell culture for production of pancreatic islet cells are promising, despite the difficulties in their production. This review reports several aspects concerning the use of stem cells in diabetes cell therapy. Recent studies in mice have shown that embryonic stem cells can be induced to differentiate into insulin-producing β-cells. In parallel with this study, a new class of stem cells has emerged, i.e. induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) aimed at clinical and therapeutic use. Adult stem cells may circumvent the ethical issues surrounding embryonic stem cells and allow auto-transplantation.
Key Words: Stem cell, diabetes, β-cell, pancreatic islets.
Download Full Article – 22: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-22-20881_2012_8_18_27_36
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