v.5, n.3, 23
Download Full Article – 23: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-23-20881_2012_11_30_40_6
v.5, n.3, 24
Although canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) has been extensively studied, muscular damage due to Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi infection remains to be fully established. The aim of this study was to describe the electromyographic and histological changes, as well as search for the presence of amastigote forms of Leishmania spp., CD3+ T-lymphocytes, macrophages and IgG in skeletal muscles of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Four muscles (triceps brachial, extensor carpi radialis, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius) from a total of 17 naturally infected and six healthy dogs were used in this study. Electromyographic alterations such as fibrillation potentials, positive sharp waves and complex repetitive discharges were observed in, at least, three muscles from all infected dogs. Myocyte necrosis and degeneration were the most frequent muscular injury seen, followed by inflammatory reaction, fibrosis and variation in muscle fibers size. Immunohistochemistry in muscle samples revealed amastigote forms in 4/17 (23.53%), IgG in 12/17 (70.58%), CD3+ T-lymphocytes in 16/17 (94.12%) and macrophages in 17/17 (100%) dogs. Statistically positive correlation was observed between: inflammatory infiltrate (p=0.0305) and CD3+ immunoreaction (p=0.0307) in relation to the number of amastigote forms; inflammatory infiltrate (p=0.0101) and macrophage immunoreaction (p=0.0127) in relation to the amount of CD3+; and inflammatory infiltrate (p=0.0044) and degeneration / necrosis (p<0.0001) in relation to the presence of macrophages. Our results suggest that different mechanisms contribute to the development of myocytotoxicity, including celular and humoral immune responses and direct muscular injury by the parasite. Nevertheless, the catabolic nature of the disease can probably interact with other factors, but cannot be incriminated as the only responsible for myositis.
Key Words: histopathology, immunohistochemistry, muscle, visceral leishmaniasis.
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v.5, n.3, 25
Molecular techniques were adopted to diagnose rabies viral RNA from skin biopsy samples collected from 20 animals. Nested RT-PCR and TaqMan real time PCR techniques have successfully diagnosed rabies viral RNA in 9 and 11 skin samples, respectively. The sensitivity of both techniques was calculated in comparison to FAT applied on brain samples. Sensitivity of 76.47% was obtained with nested RT-PCR on skin biopsy samples while Taqman real time PCR revealed sensitivity of 92.85%. It was concluded that TaqMan real time PCR is a useful, specific, sensitive and better molecular approach for antemortem rabies diagnosis from skin samples of rabies suspected animals.
Key Words: lyssavirus, Rabies virus, Skin biopsies, Diagnosis, PCR techniques.
Download Full Article – 25: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-25-20881_2012_11_30_49_48
v.5, n.3, 26
Gap junctions are cellular structures that allow transit of molecules between cells, allowing intercellular signaling and transportation. They are formed by proteins denominated connexins and represent key structures in highly complex and integrated tissues, such as the central nervous system (CNS). The present study evaluates the effects of connexin 32 (Cx32) deletion upon CNS inflammation and regeneration/repair after 1, 3, 7, 10 and 20 days after intracerebral injection of ethidium bromide in Cx32 Knock Out and normal mice. To accomplish so, Real Time PCR gene expression quantification was performed upon Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFÎ±), Transforming Growth Factor beta 1 (TGFÎ²1), Metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP1) genes. Results indicate varying differences in the expression pattern, including difference in expression of all evaluated genes in the 3 days post injection period, apex of the acute inflammation mechanisms. These results suggest that Cx32 may perform important functions on molecular, inflammatory and regenerative/repair signalling in the CNS.
Key Words: connexins, Mice, encefalitis, ethidium bromide.
Download Full Article – 26: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-26-20881_2012_11_30_50_32
v.5, n.3, 27
Oral and nasal carcinomas are common in domestic animals, but osseous neoformation in epithelial tumors is rare. This is the first case of an ossifying carcinoma described in horse. This report describes a case of oronasal ossifying carcinoma in a 5-year-old Quarter Horse stallion that developed swelling on the right side of the face. Grossly, there was a neoplastic mass that occupied the entire right nasal cavity and extended into the oral cavity. Histologically, there was neoplastic proliferation of epithelial cells, which were arranged in cords and nests supported by an abundant fibrovascular stroma with osteoid deposition and osseous differentiation in the stroma with abundant osteoclast-like cells. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated immunopositivity for cytokeratin in epithelial cells and immunopositivity for vimentin in stromal cells including the osteoclast-like cells. Immunohistochemical findings favored a diagnosis of ossifying oronasal carcinoma.
Key Words: equine, tumor, neoplasia, oral, nasal.
Download Full Article – 27: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-27-20881_2012_11_30_51_26
v.5, n.3, 28
Primary lung neoplasms are rare in small animals and present variable clinical signs. Here we report a case of a 4-year-old male cat which presented with apathy, dyspnea and pleural effusion. The cytological analysis of the pleural effusion revealed massive presence of atypical cells and the histopathological examination of the lung demonstrated tissue infiltration by atypical cells arranged in solid nests. The cytological and histopathological findings were compatible with squamous cell lung carcinoma.
Key Words: cytology, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, lung neoplasm, cat.
Download Full Article – 28: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-28-20881_2012_11_30_52_15
v.5, n.3, 29
A 10-year-old cat was admitted to the Jardim da SauÌde Veterinary Center with a history of anorexia, prostration and jaundice. On physical examination, it was observed an abdominal enlargement. The ultrasound revealed polycystic liver disease and biliary duct obstruction. During cholecistoduodenostomy, several cystic structures were observed within the liver. Bile cytology was performed revealing the presence of Platynosomum fastosum eggs. Findings were consistent with Platynosomum fastosum infection associated with polycystic liver disease. Although uncommonly mentioned, infection by Platynosomum fastosum should be placed as a differential diagnosis in polycystic liver disease in cats, always taking into account the geographic location and the hunting habits of the cat.
Key Words: liver fluke, Platynosomum sp., polycystic disease, cat.
Download Full Article – 29: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-29-20881_2012_11_30_54_12
v.5, n.3, 30
Mast cell tumor manifests as a localized proliferation of mast cells in the skin,less frequently as a systemic disorder, which may be accompanied by the presence of neoplastic mast cells in the peripheral blood (mastocythemia). In some cases, the neoplastic circulating mast cells originate in the bone marrow, designated as mast cell leukemia, rarely observed in dogs,the cells may arise from visceral mast cell tumors, characterizing systemic mastocytosis. The aim of this report was to describe a case of a six-year-old female German shepherd dog presenting with history of anorexia, hematemesis and diarrhea. The blood work revealed intense mastocythemia (43%), with degranulated mast cells, and anisocytosis. At necropsy, white nodular lesions in the thymic region and an infiltrative mass in mesenteric and abdominal lymph nodes were observed. Those lymph nodes were enlarged and off-white. Histopathological examination revealed neoplastic mast cells in the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, kidneys, lungs, gastric and enteric mucosae, and adrenal glands. The clinical, hematological and histopathological findings were compatible with mastocythemia, associated with a moderately differentiated visceral mast cell tumor.
Key Words: canine, mastocytoma, myeloproliferative disorder, neoplasm.
Download Full Article – 30: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-30-20881_2012_11_30_55_18
v.5, n.3, 31
Primary hepatic neoplasms (PHN) account for 0.6 to 1.5% of canine tumours and constitute a major portion of chronic liver disease. The canine hepatic neoplasms can be classified as hepatocellular adenoma/carcinoma (HA/HCC), cholangiocellular adenoma/carcinoma (CCA/CCC), neuroendocrine carcinoma of tumors of mesenchymal origin, vascularhematopoietic. Thus, because of its importance in veterinary oncology and hepatology, we performed a retrospective study of primary canine liver cancer in the Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Sao Paulo, between 1999 and 2012. Was evaluated 6886 histopathological analysis, 106 (1.5%) were related to canine liver diseases, in which the tumors accounted for 27 cases (25.47%). Liver neoplasms, were classified as HA (2 cases -7.4%); CCA (5 cases – 18.5%); HCC (5 cases – 18.5%); CCC (6 cases – 22.2%) and 9 tumors of mesenchymal, hematopoieticvascular (33.3%). Epidemiological data showed similarities to previously reported data, predominantly CCC, HCC and CCA in older animals and females.
Key Words: primary hepatic neoplasms, epidemiology, veterinary oncology, veterinary hepatology, vimentin.
Download Full Article – 31: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-31-20881_2012_11_30_56_17
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