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Comparative analysis of histopathological alterations and immunohistochemistry was performed on 15 brain samples of cow. In the present study, brain tissues were positive in 9 cases (60.0%), using polyclonal antiserum by immunohistochemistry and 7 cases (46.60%) were found positive for rabies by demonstration of Negri bodies. Hundred neurons per case were observed for Negri bodies; number of Negri bodies in positive neurons was counted and a comparison of IHC and histopathology was done. Number of neurons positive for rabies virus antigen per 100 neurons (900 neurons) by IHC were more (665) than H& E staining (344) and average number of Negri bodies per neuron detected by IHC were more (2.97) than histopathology (1.52), therefore, IHC was found to be more sensitive than histopathology.
Key Words: cattle, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, rabies.
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v.6, n.1, 5
Clostridium perfringens type A (CPA) has been recognized as one of the most important cause of neonatal diarrhea in piglets. Despite its importance, the pathogenesis of CPA-associated disease is still unclear and data regarding its occurrence in Brazil is scarce. In light of this, the aim of this study was to report a case of neonatal diarrhea in piglets by CPA encoding beta-2 toxin gene (cpb-2). Three three-day-old piglets from a 2000-sow herd with history of diarrhea were necropsied and intestinal samples were collected for histology, immunohistochemistry, and feces samples were collected for bacteriologic and molecular procedures. Gross and histopathology revealed superficial necrotic enteritis associated with colonies of bacilli adhered to the exposed lamina propria. These ileal and jejunum fragments were positive for C. perfringens by immunohistochemistry, while anaerobic colonies were identified by PCR multiplex as CPA with the cpb-2. No other enteropathogen was identified from intestinal samples. The C. perfringens isolated strains were susceptible to penicillin, metronidazole and vancomicyn and resistant to eritromycin, enrofloxacin, oxitetracyclin and lincomycin.
Key Words: Clostridial diarrhea, beta-2 toxin, enteropathogen, enteritis, piglets
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An adult male Amazon tree boa (Corallus hortulanus) from the Zoo-Botanical Foundation (Belo Horizonte, Brazil) died after a period of apathy and anorexia. Cachexia was the only significant gross finding. Numerous eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were found in the liver, lungs, heart, testes, kidneys, and adipose tissue, compatible with the Inclusion Body Disease. The snake also had an undifferentiated metastatic sarcoma. In order to further characterize the inclusion bodies found in this case, transmission electronic microscopy was performed. Inclusion Body Disease affects boid snakes, causing regurgitation, anorexia and neurological signs that eventually lead to death. This is a challenging disease since its etiology, pathogenesis, and epidemiology are unknown, and therefore treatment is not effective. This is the first report of Inclusion Body Disease in boid snake in Brazil.
Key Words: Corallus hortulanus, Inclusion Body Disease, Amazon tree boa, snake, sarcoma
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The aim of this study is to describe a case of an asymptomatic dog naturally infected withLeishmania infantum chagasi with a surprising number of parasites in the duodenum. A mixed breed dog of unknown age was referred to the Center for Zoonoses Control of the Municipality of RibeiraÞo das Neves, Belo Horizonte Metropolitan area, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The dog was diagnosed for Leishmania using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), direct parasitological examination of bone marrow aspiration, and immunohistochemistry of ear biopsy. After euthanasia samples of spleen, liver, lung, kidney, heart, cervical and mesenteric lymph nodes; ear, snout, abdominal skin and GIT segments (esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum) were evaluated histologically and immunohistochemically for the presence of parasite amastigotes. Gross and microscopic examination of necropsy samples showed no severe alterations of the mucosa in any gastrointestinal segment. A conspicuous parasite load was observed in the lamina propria of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum. Parasite distribution in the small intestine was diffuse through the lamina propria, whereas in the large intestine it was concentrated close to the muscularis mucosa and distant from the intestinal lumen. The parasite load in the duodenum, mainly in the subepithelial region, was higher than in the other segments (p = 0.0008). This unusual case of localization in the small intestine and the distribution of the parasites in the intestinal mucosa may suggest the existence of different regulatory mechanisms in these segments.
Key Words: Canine visceral leishmaniasis, gastrointestinal tract, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi.
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Hereditaryacquired cerebellar hypoplasia (CH) is commonly diagnosed in Holstein, Guernsey, Shorthorn and Jersey cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) has been associated to acquired CH due to viral infection during the second trimester of pregnancy. Stricken calf usually shows ataxia, hypermetria, opisthotonus, intentional tremor and wide-based stance when in standing position. Three newborn calves were referred to the FCAV/Unesp Veterinary Teaching Hospital because of neurological distress. The clinical presentation, similar in all cases, indicated CH. Two weeks later, clinical signs did not improve and euthanasia was performed. Macroscopic examination revealed a gelatinous serosanguineous fluid over the brain surface and within the cervical spinal canal. Histologically the cerebellum had disorganization of the internal granular layer and moderate disappearance of Purkinje cells. The observed clinical signs and nervous tissue lesions were consistent with congenital cerebellar syndrome, possibly associated to viral infection during fetal development. Despite CH has been assumed to be related to BVD, blue tongue and Akabane viruses, only the BVD etiology has been already identified in Brazil.
Key Words: bovine viral diarrhea, cattle, cerebellar malformation, opisthotonus.
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A 2-year-old, intact female Maltese dog was presented to the veterinarian with a history of acute neurological signs. On neurological examination the dog showed deficit of mental status (apathy and depression), seizures, constant howling, head turn and compulsive circling to the right side and falls to the left side. The treatment protocol using prednisolone (for seizures remission) and cyclosporine (initiated in the chronic stage) did not stop the progression of the disease and euthanasia was elected 65 days later. Necropsy revealed mild cerebral asymmetry, and in the frontal (more affected) parietal and occipital lobes of the right hemisphere there were friable, depressed and yellowish areas characterizing malacia. The left contralateral frontal lobe was edematous and slightly yellowish. At histopathology, the lesions were characterized by marked, multifocal to coalescing necrotizing meningoencephalitis, characterized by focally extensive areas of malacia, especially in the cortex of the frontal and right parietal lobes. Extension of lesions to white matter was observed only in the caudal region of the right frontal lobe. Plasma cells and lymphocytes infiltration was observed around vessels, leptomeninges and in the neuroparenchyma. In addition, the non-cavitation areas were also characterized by neuropil vacuolization, neuronal necrosis, neuronophagia, astroglyosis with various gemistocytes, endothelial hyperplasia and hypertrophy. The immunohistochemical analysis showed predominance of CD3 positive T lymphocytes in proportion to CD79 positive cells. Clinical signs, character and distribution of neurological lesions were compatible with necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME). This condition, initially reported only in Pugs, currently affects other breeds and attention should be given to the differential diagnosis with other neuropathies in dogs.
Key Words: brain, clinical signs, seizures, malacia, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, dogs.
Download full article – 9: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-09-20881_2013_4_5_17_11
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This study describes an outbreak of Toxoplasma gondii abortions in a sheep herd in January/February 2010. An aborted fetus was submitted to the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for post mortem evaluation. Tissue samples were collected and processed by routine histological methods, stained by hematoxylin-eosin and by immunohistochemistry using anti-T. gondii and Neospora caninum specific antibodies. The 250 sheep herd was reared in a semi-intensive production system and one month before delivery the ewes were confined. Forty out of 100 pregnant ewes aborted in the last month of pregnancyhad stillborns. Serum samples previously collected from some ewes were positive for T. gondiiby serological test. Histologically, the fetal central nervous system had multifocal necrotic areas surrounded by inflammatory cells, with intralesional cysts positive for T. gondii by immunohistochemistry. Based on clinical signs, serology, histopathology and immunohistochemistry results a diagnosis of T. gondii abortion was firmed.
Key Words: Toxoplasma gondii, abortion, encephalitis, histopathology, immunohistochemistry.
Download full article – 10: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-10-20881_2013_4_5_17_53