v.6, n.3, 19
Leishmaniases are a group of chronic systemic infectious diseases caused by intracellular protozoa of the genus Leishmania. In the present study the authors aimed to investigate Leishmania spp-induced lesions mainly to detect the presence of the parasite within the CNS and lymph nodes in dogs from the Araguaina region, Tocantins State, Northern Brazil. Descriptive statistical analysis of variance and correlation were conducted, indicating that gross signs and visceral lesions do not correlate positively. Therefore we conclude that the diagnosis cannot be based on macroscopic signs alone presented by the infected dogs.
Key Words: Leishmania spp; Central nervous system; dogs
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v.6, n.3, 20
The present study aimed to assess the antioxidant potential of hydro-alcoholic extract ofOcimum sanctum leaves (HAEO) in Wistar rats intoxicated with arsenic. The experimental animals (n=75) were divided randomly into five groups of 15 rats each. Rats in group I received distilled water, whereas rats in groups II, III, IV and V received arsenic as sodium arsenate salt @ 25 ppm in drinking water daily for 45 days. In addition, rats from groups III, IV and V received HAEO @ 50, 100 and 200 mg/ kg body weight, respectively, once daily for a period of 45 days. Rats of group I and II acted as negative and positive controls, respectively. At the end of the experiment, all rats were sacrificed; blood and tissues were assayed for various biochemical indicators of oxidative stress. Cytopathological changes in brain and spinal cord tissues were studied in arsenic intoxicated animals. The free radical scavenging and intracellular antioxidant activities of HAEO were determined from its radical scavenging ability and antioxidant power assay. HAEO was found to inhibit lipid peroxidation in brain tissue in a dose dependent manner. Administration of HAEO @ 100 mg/kg body weight was found to be more effective in restoring action on discrete regions of the brain than dose rate of 50 and 200 mg. Non-significant effect of HAEO on blood and tissue arsenic concentrations was observed except some moderate depletion of blood arsenic concentrations. Mild to severe necrosis and degenerative changes were observed in brain tissues of arsenic intoxicated animals. It is concluded that administration of HAEO could provide specific protection from oxidative injury in arsenic intoxicated rats by accelerating the recovery of antioxidant enzymes to normal levels but it did not have protective effect on brain cellular structures. The proposed mechanism for this protection is the free radical scavenging ability of Ocimum sanctum plant leaves.
Key Words: Ocimum sanctum, sodium arsenite, oxidative stress, antioxidant, brain.
Download full article – 20: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-24-20881_2013_12_3_0_19
v.6, n.3, 21
Fire gun euthanasia is a widely used method on Equine Infectious Anemia positive horses in Brazil. Death occurs by massive destruction of brain tissue and the degree of damage depends on the gun, projectile, and shooting precision. Cranial bone lesions of eight horses euthanized and brain lesions on two of those animals were evaluated. This study aimed to verify the applicability and efficiency of the method and to check the lesions features, with emphasis on fatal ones, found mainly in frontal, sphenoid and occipital bones, and on cerebral hemispheres, thalamus, hypothalamus, and brain stem. Difficulties in applying the method for grouped animals were identified. Injuries that caused immediate stunning were related to only one shot and the gun and ammunition used were effective for the purpose.
Key Words: brain, skull bones, fire gun euthanasia, forensic ballistic.
Download full article – 21: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-21-20881_2013_12_3_59_21
v.6, n.3, 22
Even though the presence of the female prostate has been reported in many species, including humans, bats and several rodents, it has many anatomical and histological variations. There is still plentiful discussion on the biological function of this organ. Many authors state that paraurethral ducts and glands are functional and homologous to the male prostate. The use of experimental models and a better knowledge of the female prostate gland in other species, can be useful to veterinary medicine as well as human medicine. Therefore the aim of this study is to check for the presence of this gland in female dogs of various breeds and age. For that purpose 25 urethras, from the bladder to the vulva, were collected, fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, routinely processed and sectioned into 4 slides of 4 μm, each with 40 μm gap between each set of 4 slides, using an automatic microtome and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosine (HE). The HE sections were evaluated for the presence of prostatic gland in the sample. Unstained tissue sections cut from paraffin blocks were marked with a polyclonal anti-PSA primary antibody. The prevalence of the gland was 32% (8/25). The structure of the paraurethral PSA-positive gland was acinar, organized in buds, with secretory epithelium varying from cubic to columnar; eccentric nuclei, with lose chromatin and a layer of basal cells, very similar to the male prostate were observed. In view of these characteristics, for the first time in the literature, was demonstrate that those glands may be considered as female prostate in dogs, as they are in other vertebrates.
Key Words: female prostate, histology, immunohistochemistry, PSA.
Download full article – 22: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-26-20881_2013_12_3_0_56
v.6, n.3, 23
Oslerus osleri (O. osleri) is a filaroid nematode of the respiratory tract of domestic and wild canids that leads to parasitic tracheobronchitis. The aim of this study was to report the first occurrence of O. osleri in hoary fox in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The animal was found struck by vehicle in a periurban area and died before any clinical procedures were attempted. At necropsy the animal showed multiple bone fractures. The mucosa of the middle and distal part of the trachea, and primary bronchi were irregular and moderately thickened, containing numerous cylindrical parasites forming nests, firmly adhered to the mucosa. Histopathological examination revealed diffuse inflammation of the mucosa and numerous parasites embedded in the lamina propria with nematode characteristics. The parasitological evaluation including morphological structures and the size of parasites confirmed the occurrence of O. osleri in the Brazilian hoary fox. The conclusion of this report is that Brazilian hoary fox is naturally infected by O. osleri and this finding is important to know the distribution and epidemiology of this little known parasite in Brazil.
Key Words: wild canid, hoary fox, Filaroididae, Oslerus osleri, tracheobronchitis, histopathology.
Download full article – 23: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-27-20881_2013_12_3_1_14
v.6, n.3, 24
Tumors arising from intrahepatic bile ducts and gall bladder have been described in several species of domestic animals. Cholangiocarcinoma is a neoplastic proliferation of the intrahepatic biliary system commonly reported in dogs, cats, sheep, cattle, horses, goat, birds kept in captivity, and occasionaly in wildlife animals. A few cases have been described in broiler chicken. This is the first report of cholangiocarcinoma in poultry, species Gallus gallus domesticus, in Brazil. The diagnosis was based in histology lesions and immunohistochemistry findings.
Key Words: backyard chickens, cholangioncarcinoma, Gallus gallus, neoplasia.
Download full article – 24: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-21-20881_2013_12_17_17_21
v.6, n.3, 25
An outbreak of oropharyngeal lesions and poisoning by closantel in sheep after improper handling and anthelmintic drug overdose is described here. Eleven sheep were affected out of 42 that were dewormed. Eight sheep died. Clinically, the animals showed abdominal recumbency, absent pupillary and palpebral reflexes, bilateral blindness, depression, apathy, emaciation, and corneal opacity. Three sheep exhibited swelling on the right side of the mandible. At necropsy, one sheep exhibited a purulent lesion located on the right, next to the root of the tongue. Microscopically, the main finding was status spongiosus in the central nervous system and optic nerve. The retina showed rod and cone degeneration, ganglionic cell layer vacuolation, karyorrhexis, and vacuolation of the outer plexiform layer. The liver of one sheep exhibited diffused coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes in the centrilobular region associated with high infestation of Haemonchus contortus.
Key Words: Oropharyngeal lesions, drench guns, poisoning, closantel, sheep.
Download full article – 25: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-25-20881_2013_12_3_0_39
v.6, n.3, 26
Transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) is commonly observed in the external reproductive organs of sexually active canines. However, this tumor can unusually be identified in young dogs which have not reached reproductive capacity. In these latter animals, the tumor presentation is located in regions distant from the genitalia as integument and mucous membranes of body cavities. This study aimed to describe a case of TVT in a puppy dog. A seven month old female dog of the Labrador breed, had disseminated nodules in the skin and left conjunctival mucosa. Cytological examination of the proliferation was chosen, which led to the diagnosis of TVT. Since the dog showed no genital lesions, as she was impuberal, this was considered as an extragenital case. Chemotherapy protocol was established with vincristine sulfate, with complete remission of the lesion at the end of the fourth session. Later there was recurrence of the cutaneous TVT, being employed salvage therapy with vinblastine. However there was tumor resistance to such a drug. Surgical excision of the recurrent lesion was performed. It was demonstrated that TVT may also be adapted to other tissues and affect not only dogs at reproductive age, but also those at the pre-pubertal age.
Key Words: transmissible venereal tumor, sexual immaturity, alternative anatomical locations, dog.
Download full article – 26: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-28-20881_2013_12_3_1_36
v.6, n.3, 27
The number of cases of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in the United Kingdom (UK) and Europe has decreased during the last years. The disease is designated as Classical BSE (C-BSE) once the prion protein involved is very constant and has genetic identity. On the other hand, atypical cases have occurred in several countries, apparently without any relationship with contaminated feeding. Atypical cases, HL-BSE can have involvement with the etiology of the known C-BSE, first diagnosed in the UK. With the control of C-BSE based on rigid control of feeding, the occurrence of atypical BSE may predominate in the future. In this hypothesis atypical BSE, probably a spontaneous encephalopathy of cattle, will be considered as Sporadic BSE in contrast with the C-BSE that could be nominated UK-BSE.
Key Words: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, BSE, Atypical BSE, cattle, prion protein.
Download full article – 27: DOWNLOAD-FULL-ARTICLE-23-20881_2013_12_3_59_59
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