v.7, n.1, 1
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v.7, n.1, 2
In order to detecting VHS virus titer in various tissues in clinical stage of VHS disease, rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were exposed to virus by bath. The experiments were carried out with 140 fish obtained from rainbow trout farm. The fish were divided into two equal groups in 120 Liter tanks containing 70 fish. Group one was considered as control and group two infected by bath challenge with 103 TCID50 ml-1 of a VHS virus strain serologically similar to reference strain F1 with high pathogenicity in rainbow trout. At days 12, 13 and 14 post infection the organs including kidney, spleen, heart, skin, liver, pyloric caeca and brain were sampled from dead fish with appropriate clinical signs of VHS separately. Each sample was placed in vials adding 1 ml transport medium to assess virus titer in various tissues. Results of the study, showed that significant difference between virus loads in various organs (p≤ 0.05). The highest virus titer belongs to the heart while it is in minimum amount in the skin. According to the virus quantity the experimental tissues can be divided in three categories, respectively. Heart and kidney performed the highest amount of virus quantities while liver, gill, pyloric caeca and skin showed the lowest with brain and spleen lying in between. These results point out that the significant levels of VHS virus found in rainbow trout tissues are relevant for the biosecurity in VHS-free areas mainly when fish are displayed and retained as whole fish.
Key Words: VHS virus, tropism, rainbow trout.
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v.7, n.1, 3
The present experiment aimed to perform histopathological, muscle and liver glycogen and muscle pH analyses of cows dead during transportation, and submitted to necropsy in slaughterhouses inspected by Federal Agencies, in Araguaína – TO, Brazil, from January to July 2013. Six affected animals dead during transportation and submitted to necropsy constituted the Experimental Group (EG); a Control Group (CG), was composed by 6 cows slaughtered ordinarily following the slaughter flow. Gross and histopathological evaluations were accomplished only on EG. The main gross lesions observed at necropsy were extensive subcutaneous and muscle hemorrhage and hematomas, interstitial (83.3% of cases) and alveolar (66.6% of cases) lung emphysema, lung congestion (66.6% of cases) and edema (16.6% of cases), kidney (83.3% of cases) and liver congestion (16.6% of cases). On histopathological evaluation, the lungs showed interstitial (100% of cases) and alveolar emphysema (66.6% of cases), congestion (66.6% of cases), edema (16.6% of cases) and blood aspiration (16.6% of cases). Renal congestion (83.3% of cases), hyaline casts (50% of cases) and tubular degeneration were the kidneys changes (16.6% of cases). Rarefaction of the white pulp (66.6% of cases), red pulp (66.6% of cases) and hemosiderin (16.6% of cases) were detected on spleen. The hepatocytes showed turve and finely vacuolyzed cytoplasm (lace-like aspect) possibly caused by a reduction on glycogen (50% of cases) and congestion (16.6% of cases). Autholysis was observed on 50% of the livers and 16.6% of the spleens and kidneys. The animals from the EG presented higher mean of degenerate muscle fibers. The intercostal muscle was more affected when compared with other muscles on the same group. Muscle pH values were higher on EG than on CG. Differently, glycogen average values were similar between groups (EG 58.97 μmol/g and CG 57.05 μmol/g). The results obtained in the present study allow to confirm that the cows, transported through long distances, and exposed to intense stress and water and food deprivation, show an homeostasis fall. Thus, stress and time of transportation affect glycogen concentrations and muscle pH. Bruises caused miofibrillar degeneration and hemorrhages that, when associated with loss of fluids through dehydration, lead to a clinical picture of hypovolemic shock evidenced by irreversible gross and microscopic changes causing death.
Key Words: hypovolemic shock, glycogen and pH changes, stress, transportation, cattle.
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v.7, n.1, 4
Arrhythmogenic right ventricle cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a rare primary heart condition recognized in dogs. It is an inherited disease more commonly described in Boxer dogs. Clinically, ARVC is characterized by ventricular tachyarrhythmias and histopathologically by fibrofatty replacement, mostly on the right ventricle. This report describes the gross and histopathological findings from a female adult Boxer and from a male adult mixed breed dog, presenting signs of heart failure and marked infiltration of adipose tissue replacing cardiomyocytes, predominantly in the epicardium and myocardium of the right ventricle.
Key Words: cardiomyopathy, ARVC, right ventricle, fibrofatty replacement.
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v.7, n.1, 5
This report describes the first diagnosed case of equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis associated with equine herpesvirus 5 (EHV-5) in a horse in Brazil. A 7-year-old Thoroughbred mare from a stud farm in southern Brazil died after a chronic respiratory disease characterized by tachypnea, respiratory distress, and cough accompanied by weight loss, anorexia, and intermittent fever. Hematological findings included mild neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and hyperfibrinogenemia. At necropsy the cadaver was extremely emaciated and the lungs did not collapse when the rib cage was removed. Significant gross lesions were restricted to the lungs and consisted of numerous, firm, coalescing nodules widely distributed throughout the organ. The nodules were 1-5 cm in diameter, pale tan-white, and sharply demarcated from the scant normal lung parenchyma. Microscopically, the nodules consisted of marked expansion of the interstitium by well- organized, mature collagen and infiltration by lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils and occasional eosinophils. Cuboidal epithelial cells lined the alveoli in affected areas and their lumina were filled with a moderate to high number of neutrophils and foamy macrophages, which occasionally displayed oval amphophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. Nucleic acid sequence analyses of amplicons from polymerase chain reaction assays targeting the viral gBand gHgenes showed closest homology with multiple corresponding sequences of the gB and gH genes of EHV 5 available in GenBank.
Key Words: EHV-5; equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis; herpesviruses; horse; pneumonia; respiratory.
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v.7, n.1, 6
The term fibropapilloma is used to refer to a papilloma virus induced benign tumor in the skin. A 6 month old Holstein calf was referred to the veterinary hospital of this school having multiple masses in the vaginal roof. The animal had 4-5 pinkish closely associated masses attached to the dorsal commissure of the vaginal roof about 5 cm deep into the vagina. Histopathological examination revealed the masses similarly consisted of abundant proliferating fibrous tissue with an epithelial covering of variable thickness. The pegs of the epithelium that typically extend into the subjacent connective tissue demonstrated papillomatous features with irregular hyperplasia and epidermal rete ridges. In the epidermis, the stratum spinosum was hyperplastic and the koilocytes included variably sized keratohyalin granules and a few intranuclear inclusion bodies were present. The dermis consisted of densely packed fibroblasts and dense irregular collagenous connective tissue. In Masson’s trichrome staining, the bundles of collagen were blue in color. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were positive for cytokeratin but negative for S-100. Based on routine histopathological, special staining and immunohistochemical findings, the tumor was diagnosed as vaginal fibropapilloma.
Key Words: fibropapilloma, vagina, heifer.
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v.7, n.1, 7
Mastitis is still an important disease causing heavy and irreparable economic losses in the dairy industry. We describe the clinicopathological and microbiological features of an unusual acute septic mastitis caused by P. multocida in a 3-year-old dairy goat. At necropsy, the enlargement of the left udder half with hard consistency, the extensive areas of necrosis and the accumulations of pus (suppurative exudate) in the cut surface of the affected udder half were observed. Histopathological findings of the affected udder showed severe degeneration and necrosis of the alveolar epithelium and an extensive infiltration of neutrophils within the alveolar lumen. Most of the mammary secretory alveoli were devoid of milk and diffusely filled with basophilic bacterial colonies positively stained by Brown and Brenn method in red color. Microbiological examination of the affected udder revealed P. multocida. It is concluded that P. multocida should be considered as an etiological agent of acute septic mastitis in goats.
Key Words: Mastitis, Goat, P. multocida, Histopathology, Microbiology.
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v.7, n.1, 8
A case of chronic renal failure associated with septic polyarthritis affecting a 39-year-old male Western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) is described. The gorilla developed a chronic interstitial nephritis associated with severe diffuse renal fibrosis, which was associated with several extra-renal uremic lesions, including uremic pneumopathy and gastropathy. Several joints presented gross and microscopic changes compatible with chronic active arthritis and athrosis, which were associated with inflammation of adjacent soft tissues. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured from sites of phlegmon and cellulitis, whereas Enterobacter sp. and Proteus mirabilis were cultured from osteoarticular lesions. Additional conditions, including testicular atrophy and leydigocytoma, a large cell lung carcinoma, calcinosis circunscripta, among others, have also been diagnosed in this senile gorilla.
Key Words: Western lowland gorilla, Gorilla gorilla gorilla, chronic renal failure, nephritis, arthritis.
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v.7, n.1, 9
Despite of being a relatively rare disease in horses, cholelithiasis is the most common cause of biliary obstruction in this species. Simultaneous intrahepatic and extrahepatic gallstones are the most frequent presentation. Usually, there are no clinical signs associated with this condition, although biliary obstruction could occur as a consequence. Two cases of cholelithiasis in horses, including gross and histopathological findings are described. In one of the cholelithiasis cases there was no association with clinical signscause of death, but in the other one, chronic loss of weight may have been caused by cholelithiasis.
Key Words: horse, biliary ducts, gallstones.
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