v.8, n.2, 1
The purpose of the study was to study the hypoglycemic effect of Gymnema sylvestre in streptozotocin induced diabetic rat model. G. sylvestre was administered at the dose rate of 50 and 100 mg/kg b w and was compared with standard hypoglycemic drug, glibenclamide for its anti hyperglycemic effect. There was improvement in various parameters such as body weight, haemoglobin, serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, AST, ALT and antioxidant enzymes in all the treatment groups. G. sylvestre elicited dose dependent effect with 100 mg/kg b w being more effective in alleviating most of the diabetic clinical signs. The findings were clearly substantiated by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, G. sylvestre has significant antidiabetic effect at 100 mg/kg b w when administered daily for 45 days.
Key words: hypoglycemic, streptozotocin, Gymnema sylvestre, glibenclamide, antidiabetic.
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v.8, n.2, 2
Adrenocortical disturbances are associated with canine ehrlichiosis due to the immunological changes caused by infection and consequent inflammation. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of adrenocortical hormonal changes in dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis (n=21) as confirmed by the presence of anti-E. canis antibodies (Dot-ELISA) and nested PCR (nPCR). Serum cortisol concentrations were assessed by radioimmunoassay before and one hour after ACTH stimulation. Ten healthy dogs were subjected to the same stimulation protocol and used as controls. The results revealed that the dogs with naturally acquired acute and subclinical ehrlichiosis secreted cortisol following ACTH stimulation in similar concentrations to those of healthy dogs.
Key words: adrenal, dogs, canine ehrlichiosis, hormones.
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v.8, n.2, 3
In Ecuador, the development and sustainability of the cultured white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, has been threatened by the occurrence of several viral pathogens, Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) mainly. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the exposition of P. vannamei juveniles to IHHNV and formalin-inactivated viruses (inactWSSV or inactIHHNV) to induce a protective response in P. vannamei juveniles against WSSV infection. P. vannamei were challenged to WSSV by intramuscular injection. Shrimp mortalities appeared at day 1 post-injection (p.i.) in positive control and inactIHHNV treatment, while IHHNV and inactWSSV treatments presented onset of mortalities at day 2 p.i. Positive control and inactIHHNV treatment presented 100% mortality at day 4 p.i., while IHHNV and inactWSSV treatments reached similar mortality at day 6 p.i. Statistical analysis revealed that WSSV-induced mortalities in juvenile P. vannamei of IHHNV and inactWSSV treatments had a significant delay (P < 0.05) compared to both the inactIHHNV-treatment and positive control. Our results showed that preliminary exposure to IHHNV or to formalin-inactivated WSSV can induce delayed mortality in Penaeus vannamei following challenge with WSSV via intramuscular injection. In case of IHHNV infection, viral interference could be the biological phenomenon involved, mediated by competition between IHHNV and WSSV. Regarding to WSSV inactivated by formalin, a “vaccination” response would be responsible for the delay, evidencing a possible specific antiviral immune response from the host.
Key words: Penaeus vannamei, WSSV, IHHNV, viral interference, “vaccination”, delayed mortality.
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v.8, n.2, 4
A rare case of the co-occurrence of an osteogenesis imperfecta-like phenotype and congenital diaphragmatic herniais reported in a male, mixed-breed kitten with a clinical history of dyspnea, dehydration, sternal recumbency and stupor. The animal presented moderate bone deformity of the fore and hind limbs, muscle atrophy, and cervical and thoracic lordosis. The radiological examination and necropsy revealed diffuse and intense radiolucency throughout the skeleton, curved or fractured bones, very thin cortical long bones, an intensely extended medullary canal and left diaphragmatic hernia with an aperture without bleeding or scarring. Microscopically, some long bones and vertebral bodies had less-differentiated cartilaginous epiphysis, predominantly attached to the epiphyseal plate and with absence of secondary ossification centers or incipient formation. The trabeculae were thin, few, surrounded by abundant cartilaginous tissue and coated with a layer of bulky cuboidal osteoblasts. The cortical long bones, vertebrae, skull and ribs were thin and discontinuous. Based on the clinical, radiological, macroscopic and microscopic findings, a diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta and congenital diaphragmatic hernia was confirmed. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first case of OI associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia in an animal.
Key words: bone disease osteogenesis imperfecta, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, Felis catus.
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v.8, n.2, 5
A case of sporadic multicentric lymphoma in a Nelore calf is reported. Anatomic presentation, age of affected animal, and cytology done on fine needle aspiration biopsy from lymph node supported a presumptive clinical diagnosis. At necropsy there were multiple cream or white soft to firm masses of varying sizes, affecting lymph nodes, kidneys, myocardium, liver, retrobulbar tissues, lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen, and dura mater; with a mitotic index of 90%. A tentative classification of the neoplasm as lymphoblastic lymphoma was made based on immunohistochemistry.
Key words: diseases of cattle, hematopoietic system, neoplasia, sporadic lymphoma, tumors of calves.
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v.8, n.2, 6
A 4 year old female Holstein cow with multiple skin lesions was referred for clinical examination. Grossly, approximately 60 discrete cutaneous nodules and masses with variable sizes ranging from 1 to 5 cm were observed on both sides of flunks, shoulders, neck, back, and mammary glands. Histopathologically, the masses were composed of non-encapsulated accumulation of neoplastic round cells contained moderate to abundant amounts of finely eosinophilic granules in the cytoplasm. Cellular or nuclear pleomorphism and mitotic figures were not remarkable. Metachromasia was seen in cytoplasmic granules stained with toluidine blue. In the immunohistochemical staining, the neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin and c-kit. No immunoreactivity was seen for cytokeratin and HMB – 45. Based on these findings, multiple cutaneous mast cell tumor was diagnosed. Immunohistochemical features of mast cell tumor have not been reported previously in cattle.
Key words: multiple mast cell tumor, pathology, immunohistochemistry, cattle.
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v.8, n.2, 7
This report describes an uncommon case of neoplasm in domesticated animals, mixed apocrine adenocarcinoma (MAA). A cutaneous mass from the tail and anal region of an adult cow was detected during the routine antemortem examination of cattle in a slaughterhouse. The mass was ulcerated, firm, measured 23 x 20 x 20 cm and weighed 10 Kg. There were extensive areas of hemorrhage and necrosis admixed with irregular islands of bone. Histopathological examination revealed multiple cysts with papillary projections into lumen. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction revealed amorphous eosinophilic secretory material into luminal spaces and on the apical surface of neoplastic cells. Immunohistochemical investigation revealed strong cytoplasmic immunostaining of the epithelial neoplastic cells for cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and strong positive immunostaining of the myoepithelial cells for smooth muscle actin (αSMA) and S-100 protein. These gross and histopathological findings observed during this study led to a final diagnosis of MAA.
Key words: cattle, abattoir lesions, tumors, apocrine gland.
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