v.8, n.3, 1
Objective: Evaluate the effect of in vitro triiodothyronine (T3) on the reduced osteogenic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) of adult rats with osteoporosis compared with BMMSCs of young and adult rats without osteoporosis. Methods: groups were tested: BMMSCs of young rats; BMMSCs of adult rats without osteoporosis; BMMSCs of adult rats with osteoporosis without T3 and BMMSCs of adult rats with osteoporosis treated with T3 (0.01, 1, 100 and 1000 nM). Alkaline phosphatase activity, MTT reduction, mineralized nodules and gene expression for collagen, osteocalcin, sialoprotein, osteopontin and BMP-2 were evaluated. Results: Osteoporosis increased the alkaline phosphatase activity and reduced the formation of mineralized nodules and expression of collagen and osteopontin in at least one of the observed time points. However, the T3 treatment of BMMSCs of rats with osteoporosis altered these parameters. Conclusion: It was concluded that doses of T3, 0.01 and 1000 nM had a positive effect promoted by increased osteogenic matrix synthesis and collagen expression in at least one of the evaluated time points compared to BMMSCs of rats with osteoporosis without treatment. However, T3 was unable to reach the osteogenic potential of the MSCs of healthy young rats.
Key words: stem cells, bone marrow, osteogenic differentiation, thyroid hormone, ovariectomy, rats.
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v.8, n.3, 2
This report describes a case of visceral leishmaniasis characterized by adrenalitis with intralesionalLeishmania sp. amastigotes in a 16 year-old maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus). The animal had been previously diagnosed as infected with Leishmania infantum by serology and xenodiagnosis. The only organ in which amastigotes were detected by histopathology and immunohistochemistry was the adrenal gland, which presented multifocal infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages containing intracytoplasmic amastigotes. The animal had no other lesions of visceral leishmaniasis, except for renal and splenic amyloidosis and pancreatitis that may be associated with the disease. Importantly, the maned wolf had an intratubular seminoma in the testis, which to the best of our knowledge is the first reported case of testicular tumor in this species.
Key words: Leishmania infantum, maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, adrenalitis, amyloidosis, seminoma.
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v.8, n.3, 3
During routine inspection of a slaughtered heifer from a feedlot, the veterinarian in charge condemned the heart due to a lesion on the endocardium. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry showed that the lesion was composed by cardiac tissues at different degree of differentiation, disordered and out of proportion. The most conspicuous was a dispersed population of large, vacuolated and PAS positive cells, enmeshed in excessive fibrous connective tissue. These cells, identified as spider cells, resulted markedly positive for desmin, and negative for vimentin, smooth muscle α-actin and myogenin factor 4. An extensive infiltration by fibro-fatty tissue was other abnormal component of the lesion. Furthermore, abnormal cardiomyoblasts forming tortuous bundles were also recognized. Nonetheless, these cells showed distinctive striations and even intercalated discs. Some of this abnormal cardiac myoblasts resulted markedly positive for desmin and isolated strands also were positive for smooth muscle α-actin, but negative for myogenin factor 4 and vimentin. Based on the pathognomonic spider cells and immunoreactivity, the lesion was classified as a cardiac rhabdomyoma. For some, the cardiac rhabdomyomas are not true neoplasms but congenital hamartomas in heart. However, principal component in cardiac hamartomas in animals is an abnormal vascular pattern completely different from the lesion herein presented. Based on the diverse tissue components, their immature and distorted image and, positive results for immunomarkers of early myoblast differentiation as well as terminal cardiomyocyte characteristics, dysplasia must be considered as the common denominator in development of cardiac rhabdomyomas with tissue heterogeneity.
Key words: rhabdomyoma, heart, bovine.
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v.8, n.3, 4
Staphylococcus xylosus is a Gram-positive coagulase-negative staphylococcus with hemolytic activity and ability to form biofilms. This organism can be a component of the human skin microbiome, with rare reported cases of opportunistic infections. S. xylosus can be also isolated from the skin of healthy cattle, horses, pigs, dogs, laboratory mice, chickens, and pigeons. Reports of disease caused by S. xylosus are rare in veterinary medicine, with cases of bovine and ovine mastitis and dermatitis, and pneumonia in immunocompromised laboratory mice. This report describes the first case of transmural necrotizing cystitis and secondary peritonitis caused by S. xylosus in a 4-month-old male Holstein calf with a history of acute onset of recumbency and spontaneous death. Gross necropsy findings included marked urinary bladder distention and diffuse reddening, and large amounts of dark red, hemorrhagic contents. In addition, segments of small intestine and mesentery were adhered to the urinary bladder. Histological evaluation revealed transmural necrosuppurative cystitis with secondary peritonitis and intralesional Gram-positive and fewer Gram-negative cocci. Bacterial culture of urine samples yielded heavy growth of S. xylosus.
Key words: Staphylococcus xylosus, cystitis, peritonitis, calf.
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v.8, n.3, 5
A case report of nasal polyps in an eight year-old Tabapuã cow is reported. The cow had a history of difficulty in breathing, was euthanatized and referred for necropsy. Twenty three pedunculated neoformations were observed in the nasal cavity. Microscopically, polypoid structures were composed by swollen myxomatous stroma lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium. Immunohistochemistry was positive for cytokeratin in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells only covering the pseudo-stratified respiratory epithelium, whereas anti-vimentin antibody was positive in the cytoplasm of cells and areas of calcification of the tunica media of blood vessels and fibroblasts within the parenchyma of the polyps. The macroscopy, histopathological, and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with nasal polyps. This is the first report of nasal polyposis in a cow in Brazil.
Key words: polyp, bovine, nasopharyngeal obstruction, upper respiratory tract.
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v.8, n.3, 6
In animals and humans, intestinal muscular hypertrophy has only been observed in the small intestine, and this appears to be the first report of the disease affecting the large intestine. A rare case of primary muscle hypertrophy of the colon was found during the necropsy of a male, 3-year-old, mixed breed cat that died due to poisoning by carbamate. The necropsy revealed that the entire colon had marked circumferential thickening with narrowing of the lumen. Microscopically, diffuse intense smooth muscle hypertrophy was observed, especially of the inner circular muscle layer and muscularis mucosa. Those finds were associated with moderate multifocal to coalescing lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate. Smooth muscle fibers of the large and small intestine showed no CDC47 expression and the percentage of nuclei in the muscle layers was similar between the colon and the duodenum. Based on macroscopic, microscopic and immunohistochemical findings, the diagnosis of diffuse primary muscle hypertrophy of the colon was confirmed.
Key words: large intestine, hypertrophy, muscle, cat.
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v.8, n.3, 7
Renal encephalopathy was diagnosed in a 7-month-old male goat with a history of diarrhea and dehydration due to Eimeria sp. infection. The goat was treated with sulfadiazine before developing central nervous system (CNS) signs characterized by severe anorexia, salivation, tremors, inability to stand and depression. Biochemical parameters revealed high levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine, 263.6 mg/dL and 2.9 mg/dL respectively. No gross pathological changes were observed at necropsy. Histopathological examination of the brain revealed large irregular empty spaces (status spongiosus) in the white matter of the brainstem, cerebellum, thalamus, basal nuclei and in the interface of white and grey matter in the cerebrum. There was severe multifocal renal tubular necrosis characterized by abundant deposits of basophilic granular material, frequently forming crystals that replaced the lost tubular epithelial cells and filled the lumina. The clinical-pathologic findings support to a diagnosis of encephalopathy due to acute renal failure.
Key words: diseases of goats, renal encephalopathy, status spongiosus, acute renal failure, sulfadiazine.
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