v.9, n.2, 1
Sixteen different herds comprising 1803 camels were surveyed between August 2009 and January 2012 for presence of Camel Papillomatosis. Outbreaks of the disease were observed in two different areas. The first outbreak occurred in Al-Qutaynah locality, about 83 Km south of Khartoum and the second in Al-Fashagah locality about 410 Km south east of Khartoum. Fifty three camels were found to be affected with papillomatosis, with a total morbidity rate of 2.9%. All affected animals were 3-24 months old in addition to 2 females aged four and five years old. Cases of Camel Papillomatosis were recorded in January, July, August and October. The skin lesions were dark grey or white keratinized fissured raised masses, some of which were pedunculated. They showed various shapes: round, oval, cauliflower, horn shape, flat or dome shape and measured on average about 8.8 X 7.5 X 7.1 mm. Warts occurred mostly in head and face but other sites (limbs, ventral abdomen, sternum and tail) were also involved. Twenty Five cases were analyzed histopathologically, in which sections were typical for fibropapilloma characterized by multiple papillary proliferations covered with keratinized epithelium, with down growth of rete ridges. Acanthosis with karyopyknosis and cytoplasmic vacuolations in stratum spinosum cells and hyperkeratosis were seen together with subepithelial fibrosis. No inclusions could be detected in squamous cells. Out of 19 samples investigated immunohistochemically for papillomavirus antigens, 10 samples were found positive. Using transmission electron microscopy, aggregates of papillomavirus virions were found in the nuclei of the stratum granulosum in one sample.
Key words: camels, epidemiology, pathology, electron microscopy, viral fibro-papilloma.
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v.9, n.2, 2
Ruminal drinking is a condition that has been extensively reported in pre-ruminant calves, and is characterized by an insufficient esophageal groove reflex that causes ingested milk to spill into the reticulum and/or rumen instead of entering the abomasum directly. In calves, milk that spills into the rumen undergoes rapid microbial fermentation, producing lactic acid and other volatile fatty acids, and lowering the ruminal pH. This reduced ruminal pH predisposes the animals to ulceration and necrosis of the rumen mucosa, as well as maldigestion and recurrent tympany. We investigated five cases of ulcerative rumenitis in white-tailed deer (WTD: Odocoileus virginianus) fawns from 2009 to 2014. Four of these fawns were females with ages ranging from 2 to 30 days. Clinical findings in the fawns included poor body condition, severe diarrhea, and sudden death. Gross changes consistently observed included large amount of milk and milk curds in the rumen, reticulum and occasionally omasum, white-colored and bloody diarrhea, severe muscle wasting with extensive loss of visceral fat. On microscopic examination, the most consistent finding among three of the animals was multifocal necroulcerative rumenitis admixed with basophilic globular material (milk), while the other two animals had unremarkable histopathologic findings. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures of samples collected revealed mixed bacterial growth suggestive of secondary opportunistic invasion. Molecular diagnostics ruled out the possibility of Bluetongue and Epizootic Hemorrhagic viral infections. This report describes for the first time, clinical, gross, and microscopic changes associated with reticulo-ruminal milk accumulation in WTD fawns across farms in Texas, and complements those of earlier studies in calves.
Key words: pathology, reticular groove reflex, rumen, ruminal drinking, white-tailed deer.
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v.9, n.2, 3
Mammary neoplasms are among the most common canine tumors, with high risk of invasion and metastasis. Important steps for these events are the loss of cell adhesion to the main tumor mass and extracellular matrix degradation. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes containing zinc, which are capable of degrading and remodeling the surrounding extracellular matrix, facilitating these events. Involvement of MMPs has been demonstrated in many pathological processes, as well as in human and canine tumors, which has been related to malignancy and prognosis. The aim of this study was to characterize the immunohistochemical expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in canine mammary gland tumors, as well as to verify its relation with the different histologic patterns. Thirty-one of the 41 tumors (75.61%) were positive. Twenty-two samples (70.97%) had diffuse cytoplasmic immunostaining and 9 (29.03%) had a finely granular pattern. Immunostaining intensity was strong in 21 (67.74%) tumors and weak in 10 (32.26%). No statistically significant differences were found between anaplastic carcinomas, carcinomas in a mixed tumor and simple carcinomas regarding positivity (p=0.9707), intensity (p=0.5386) and staining pattern (0.6135); between solid carcinomas and simple papillary carcinomas for positivity (p=0,7333), intensity (p=0.7333) and staining pattern (p=0.3037); or between solid carcinomas and simple tubular and papillary carcinomas for positivity (p=0.9682), intensity (p=0.8450) and staining pattern (p=0.5068). MMP-9 was detected with variable intensity and morphological patterns of cytoplasmic staining. However significant statistic differences were not found between the histological types or histopathological grades.
Key words: canine, extracellular matrix, mammary tumor, MMP-9, prognostic markers.
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v.9, n.2, 4
This study was based on analysis of the central nervous system from cattle that died after developing neurological disease in the State of Minas Gerais from 2004 to 2010. Samples were analyzed by histopathology, histochemistry, and anti-Listeria monocytogenes immunohistochemistry. The frequency of positivity for the techniques used and distribution were determined, and the results were analyzed by Fisher’s exact test. Microscopic changes were observed in 29.5% (290/982) of bovine central nervous system samples examined. Inflammatory changes were the most frequent lesions (87.2% – 253/290) with 80% of cases (232/290) presenting non suppurative inflammation. Through histopathologic analyses, presumptive or conclusive etiology was obtained in 25.2% (73/290) of the samples. Etiologic diagnosis included inflammation by viruses (bovine herpesvirus infection in six samples; ovine herpesvirus-2 infection in eight samples); and bacteria (bacterial infection in 34 samples; and tuberculosis in six samples). Circulatory changes were evident in 26 cattle being nine cases of cerebral babesiosis. Degenerative lesions were detected in eight samples. One congenital change (cerebellar abiotrophy) and one neoplasm (astrocytoma) were identified. Neurological diseases other than rabies were diagnosed in Minas Gerais, and the use of histopathology allowed a more accurate differential diagnosis and a higher rate of conclusive diagnoses.
Key words: cattle, neurological diseases, health surveillance, differential diagnosis.
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v.9, n.2, 5
Cannabinoids can inhibit the release of androgens locally or centrally. For this reason, this study was designed to assess the effect of WIN 55, 212-2, a CB1 receptor agonist, on gubernacular development histologically. Sprague-Dawley female rats were time-mated and divided into treatment and control groups. For prenatal exposures, the groups received injections subcutaneously of 0.5 mg/kg WIN 55, 212-2 (WIN) or vehicle on gestational days 13.5–20.5. Five to 13 male offspring were collected at time points E19 (embryonic), P0 (postnatal), P2, and P8. The body weight and anogenital distance (AGD) of postnatal male pups were recorded at birth. The inguino-perineal region of all the samples after fixing in 4% paraformaldehyde were sectioned oblique-sagittally and stained with Hematoxilin and Eosin (HE) or Masson’s trichrome. Measured Factors in this study were based on previous studies and included gubernacular cone height (GCH), gubernacular cone width (GCW), distance from gubernaculum to scrotum (G-S), and pubic symphysis-to-anus distance (PS-A). The former two factors were measured bilaterally and the latter two only on the left side. The gubernaculum at P0 appeared more bulky than that of controls. Failure of eversion at P2 and remaining bulb of gubernaculum at P8 were important findings in WIN-treated group. The mean distance from gubernaculum to scrotum increased significantly only at P2 compared to controls. AGD as a bioassay of fetal androgen action also showed a significant 16% reduction as compared with the control group at birth. These data propose that prenatal exposure to WIN can affect gubernacular development probably due to androgen-disruptive action.
Key words: cannabinoids, gubernaculum, anogenital distance, testicular descent.
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v.9, n.2, 6
Two outbreaks (A and B) of bovine enzootic hematuria in Bahia in the period 2012-2013 were described. In the outbreak A, a cow was necropsied and 27 cattle were slaughtered in a slaughterhouse, and the second outbreak two cattle were necropsied. In the outbreak A of a cattle herd 28 mixed breed, approximately two-years-old, three had hematuria for about three months and progressive weight loss. Grossly, the main findings in the bladder were petechiae, papillomatous formations, thickening areas of mucosa white and red nodules. In 2/28 cattle there were no microscopic changes in the urinary bladder, whereas 26/28 cattle had some kind of change. In four of these cattle neoplastic changes (2 cases with hemangioma, 1 with cavernous hemangioma and hemangiosarcoma, and 1 with transitional cell carcinoma) were observed. In the outbreak B, 42 cattle from a herd consisting of 278 Nelore cattle, with approximately four-years-old, presented clinical signs characterized by weakness, anemia, weight loss and intermittent hematuria. Of the 42 affected cattle, 23 died and two were necropsied. At necropsy, the main changes were anemia and marked wrinkling and diffuse thickening of the bladder mucosa, associated with multiple focal hemorrhages. Microscopically lesions consisted of benign angioblastic proliferation, urothelial carcinomas, hemangiomas and hemangiosarcoma. The diagnosis of bovine enzootic hematuria was based on clinical, pathological and epidemiological findings. The study showed that bovine enzootic hematuria caused by Pteridium arachnoideum is a diagnosis to be considered in cattle in Southwestern region of the State of Bahia, Brazil.
Key words: cattle diseases, hematuria, urinary bladder, neoplasia, bracken fern, Pteridium arachonoideum.
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v.9, n.2, 7
This report describes a case of proventricular rupture associated with Psittaciforme 1 Bornavirus in a 10-year old Major Mitchell Cockatoo (Lophochroa leadbeateri) who presented with a 2-day history of weakness and weight loss. On necropsy, a fibrinonecrotizing coelomitis and an enlarged proventriculus with a 0.5 cm in diameter transmural perforation characterized the main findings. Histology confirmed the locally extensive, transmural necrotizing proventriculitis with coelomitis. Additionally, lymphoplasmacytic ganglioneuritis in the proventriculus, heart, small intestine, and adrenal gland, as well as lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis, hallmarks of proventricular dilatation disease. Psittaciform 1 bornavirus RNA was confirmed in the brain, proventriculus and ventriculus by RT-PCR. Avian Bornavirus antigen was identified by immunohistochemistry in the brain and heart.
Key words: Avian Bornavirus, psittacine birds, proventricular dilatation disease.
Download full article: v9 n2 – 7
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