v.9, n.3, 1
Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) is a degenerative, progressive and lethal genetic disease, homologous to human Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). For both there is no cure and clinical interventions are limited to treating clinical signs. As potential treatment, we did a pilot study in GRMD and administered a cocktail of frequently used drugs that might work synergistically. Biochemical blood values were investigated and histology and real-time PCR of muscle biopsies were performed. Significant improvements occurred in experimental Golden Retrievers dogs in regard to the levels of alanine aminotransferase, neutrophils, lymphocytes and CK, which began to show values closer to normal ones when compared to control animals, as well as moderate inflammatory infiltrates in the musculature, according to histology. The drug cocktail seemed to work systemically, but did not interfere with the gene defect, thus having potential value for maintaining the health status and preventing the progression of muscular dystrophy in GRMD model.
Key words: treatment, disease of dogs, muscle diseases, canine dystrophy.
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v.9, n.3, 2
Biliary atresia is a congenital cholangiopathy characterized by a progressive fibrosis of the bile ducts leading to impaired biliary flow, hepatic failure, icterus and early death. This paper describes the gross and microscopic findings in a 4-week-old Beefmaster calf that unexpectedly died with severe jaundice. On postmortem examination, the liver was firm in texture and exhibited an orange-yellow discoloration. Microscopically, there were cholestasis, hyperplasia, fibrosis and obliteration of the bile ducts, and mural fibrosis of the gall-bladder. Masson’s trichrome and Gomori’s stain revealed excessive collagen deposition in the portal areas and biliary ducts, and occasionally around central veins. Immunohistochemistry confirmed biliary epithelial cells, not only lining the bile ducts but also were forming tubular-like structures devoid of a lumen. Blood test was negative for babesiosis and anaplasmosis. Based on these findings, the final diagnosis was congenital biliary atresia.
Key words: biliary atresia, congenital, jaundice, portal fibrosis, Beefmaster calf.
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v.9, n.3, 3
A case of granulomatous leptomeningitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans is described in a 2-year-old mixed-breed, female goat which presented acute neurological signs including ataxia, nystagmus, bilateral blindness, opisthotonus, hyperesthesia, and spastic paresis of forelimbs. Granulomatous inflammation was detected in the pia arachnoid covering the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes of the telencephalon; cerebellum, thalamus, mesencephalon, pons, medulla, and cervical and thoracolumbar segments of the spinal cord. Yeast-like organisms with morphology compatible with Cryptococcus spp. were observed. A 350 base pair sequence was amplified from DNA extracted from the formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue. The amplified sequence matched 100% Cryptococcus neoformans. It is suggested that cryptococcal meningitis should be included in the differential diagnosis list of goat diseases with neurological signs such as ataxia, opisthotonus, nystagmus, hyperesthesia and spastic paresis.
Key words: goat diseases, central nervous system, leptomeningitis, mycosis, Cryptococcus neoformans.
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v.9, n.3, 4
Multiple congenital malformations of the central nervous system are uncommonly described in domestic animals. A 7-days-old, female, Holstein calf was submitted for necropsy with a history of opisthotonus and permanent lateral recumbence. Clinical signs included apathy, abdominal breathing, occasional flexion of the forelimbs, and decreasing of the superficial and deep sensibility in all limbs. Necropsy and histopathology revealed cerebellar hypoplasia, stenosis of the mesencephalic aqueduct, fusion of the rostral and caudal colliculi, secondary hydrocephaly, villous hypertrophy of the choroid plexus and heterotopy of cerebellar cellular components. Immunohistochemical labeling for the antibody anti-BVDV in fragments of brain resulted negative, suggesting that this virus did not participate in the pathogenesis of these malformations.
Key words: diseases of calves, neuropathology, central nervous system, cerebellar hypoplasia.
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v.9, n.3, 5
The pathological findings and the immunohistochemical and molecular diagnosis of two natural cases of pulmonary adenocarcinoma in goats are described. Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA), a contagious lung tumor, caused by an exogenous Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus (JSRV), is reported commonly in sheep and rarely in goats. The affected lungs had a focally extensive and firm nodule or multiple nodules on the cranioventral region. On the cut surface, the nodules were greyish, granular and moist, resembling classical form of OPA. Microscopically, the lung sections showed unencapsulated nodules of neoplastic epithelial cells, from alveoli and bronchioles, forming papillary projections or acini. On the immunohistochemical analysis, JSRV capsid protein was demonstrated in the neoplastic epithelial cells. Genomic DNA was extracted from the lung tumor tissues and was subjected to U3-hn-PCR that further confirmed the presence of JSRV. The pathological findings in goats were similar to that of OPA affecting lungs of sheep and, to the author’s knowledge, this is the first report of the disease in goats with immunohistochemical and PCR confirmation of JSRV.
Key words: goat, JSRV, lung, OPA, pathology.
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v.9, n.3, 6
A case of hepatogenous chronic copper toxicosis associated with ingestion of Brachiaria decumbens in a 4-year-old female is reported in a goat from a herd of approximately 1,000 goats of different categories, all grazing in a pasture consisting exclusively of B. decumbens. The goat had chronic weight loss, dehydration, and apathy. Just prior to death it developed anemia, icterus and hemoglobinuria. Necropsy findings included marked icterus, enhanced lobular pattern and orange discoloration of the liver, pulmonary edema, distention of the gall bladder and hemoblobinuric nephrosis. Histopathological examination of the liver revealed marked random degeneration and necrosis of individual hepatocytes, marked bilestasis, intracytoplasmic hemosiderin in hepatocytes and Kupffer cells, birefringent crystals with bile staining in the lumen of bile ducts, and sparse, randomly distributed foamy macrophages. Severe multifocal tubular degeneration and necrosis associated with multiple hyaline and coarsely granular hemoglobin casts were observed in the kidneys. Copper levels determined in liver and kidney samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometry were 410 ppm of liver dry matter and 34.4 ppm (kidney, dry matter). The gross, histopathological findings and copper analysis in the tissues of this goat led to a final diagnosis of hepatogenous chronic copper toxicosis associated with grazing of B. decumbens.
Key words: diseases of goats, liver diseases, toxicosis, copper, poisonous plants.
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v.9, n.3, 7
Ectopic pregnancies have been rarely reported in animals and little is known in wildlife species regarding the capacity of the placenta to support extrauterine fetal development. An adult, female, free-ranging California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) died suddenly after four weeks in a rehabilitation center. At necropsy, a partially mummified fetus, covered by light-brown membranes occupied the lower third of the abdominal cavity. The maternal uterus was intact and a prominent corpus luteus enlarged the right ovary. The fetal membranes epithelium had immunohistochemical profile identical to normal sea lion placenta but was different from the staining profile of sea lion omentum. The findings in this case suggest that partial placentation occurred in the abdominal cavity, highlighting the potential of otariids placenta to support ectopic fetal development. Acute toxic shock with disseminated intravascular coagulation was considered the most likely cause of death of the adult female sea lion.
Key words: California sea lion, ectopic pregnancy, pathology, placenta, Zalophus californianus.
Download full article: v9-n3-7
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